Isnin, April 21, 2008

Contoh Kematangan Politik Masyarakat Minda Kelas Pertama Pasca PRU-12

Salam .... untuk renungan rakyat Malaysia .... jika ini dapat diamalkan oleh semua, negara kita akan lebih maju dan matang .... moga ia jadi panduan kepada kita semua ....


Sumber : Harakah Daily
Isnin 21 April 2008 | 14 Rabiul Akhir 1429 Hijrah
DAP, Gerakan berlapang dada, Umno pula utamakan dendam
Mat Zain Mat Isa
Mon | Apr 21, 08 | 3:00:13 pm MYT

Sikap terbuka Ketua Menteri Pulau Pinang, Lim Guan Eng di dalam menawarkan peranan berkongsi urusan pemerintahan negeri dengan tokoh-tokoh dari Barisan Nasional (BN), bukan sahaja mengagumkan, malah mengejutkan kita semua.

Jarang berlaku dalam sejarah pemerintahan negara dan negeri-negeri di Malaysia sebuah kerajaan memberi peluang kepada pemimpin parti lawan untuk ikut serta dalam sebarang jawatankuasa, agensi atau perbadanan milik kerajaan.

Bagaimanapun tradisi amalan negatif dan tidak demokratik itu bukan suatu kemestian yang perlu dipertahankan mana-mana kerajaan. Ia ternyata tidak begitu sukar diubah.

Kerajaan Pulau Pinang diterajui DAP yang sanggup mengenepikan perbezaan fahaman politik telah menawarkan jawatan berkaitan kerajaan kepada beberapa pemimpin parti pembangkang (BN).

Mendahului usaha itu ialah tawaran kepada bekas Timbalan Setiausaha Agung Gerakan, Dato' Lee Kah Choon sebagai Pengerusi Eksekutif Jawatankuasa Invest Penang.

Bekas Setiusaha Parlimen Kementerian Kesihatan itu juga ditawarkan jawatan Pengarah Perbadanan Pembangunan Pulau Pinang (PDC).

Dalam Pilihan Raya Umum ke-12 bulan lalu, Lee bertanding atas tiket BN bagi Dewan Undangan Negeri (DUN) Machang Bubuk. Beliau bahkan antara nama yang disebut-sebut bakal dilantik sebagai Ketua Menteri Pulau Pinang mengganti Tan Sri Dr Koh Tsu Koon yang beralih angin bertanding di kerusi Parlimen, sekiranya BN kembali berkuasa di negeri itu.

Guan Eng dalam kenyataannya mengenai pelawaan itu menegaskan kerajaan pimpinannya tidak mengambil kira perbezaan fahaman politik, bangsa atau agama dalam melantik seseorang memegang jawatan.

"Kerajaan negeri mahu menggembleng tenaga semua pihak bagi memastikan sumbangan ekonomi negeri dapat dikecapi rakyat," katanya pada sidang media di Georgetown, semalam.

Difahamkan Lee menerima baik tawaran bagi kedua-dua jawatan tersebut. Beliau bahkan dikatakan telahpun memulakan tugasnya Jumaat lalu. Sikap matang dan profesional ditunjukkan pemimpin parti komponen BN itu bagaimanapun gagal dihayat dan dikongsi rakan-rakannya dari kalangan pemimpin Umno.

Selain Lee, kerajaan Pulau Pinang dikatakan turut menawarkan peranan dalam pentadbiran kerajaan kepada tiga Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri (Adun) Umno negeri itu.

Mereka adalah Adun Sungai Acheh, Dato' Mahmud Zakaria; Adun Seberang Jaya, Dato' Ariff Shah Omar Shah dan Adun Pulau Betong, Muhamad Farid Saad.

Dalam akhbar Berita Harian hari ini (21 April), ketiga-tiga mereka mengesahkan telah ditawarkan tempat sebagai ahli jawatankuasa pentadbiran kerajaan. Mereka bagaimanapun sepakat menolak pelawaan tersebut.

"Biarlah mereka mentadbir dengan cara mereka. Kita beri peluang dan ruang yang cukup kepada mereka," kata Muhammad Farid.

Ketua Pembangkang, Dato' Azhar Ibrahim pula menganggap penyertaan Adun Umno dalam pentadbiran kerajaan negeri dibimbangi akan menyukarkan pihaknya untuk membawa suara rakyat.

"Kita tidak mahu mereka menuding jari kepada kita apabila Umno membangkitkan sesuatu isu hanya kerana ada Adun dari Umno menganggotai jawatankuasa yang dikritik," katanya, sebagaimana disiarkan Berita Harian.

Sikap ditunjukkan Adun-Adun Umno itu sudah dapat dijangka. Prejudis mereka terhadap parti lawan sangat tebal. Bahkan, dalam banyak keadaan mereka tidak dapat menyembunyikan perasaan kecewa dan marah atas kekalahan menimpa BN.

Bagaimana mungkin nak diharapkan mereka ini akan terus memberikan sumbangan bermakna untuk negeri mereka atau bekerjasama dengan kerajaan yang ada? Tambah mendukacitakan, perasaan marah itu turut diterjemahkan dalam bentuk tindakan membalas dendam.

Sikap itu dibuktikan apabila Badan Perhubungan Umno Pulau Pinang telah memanggil mesyuarat khas parti itu 13 Mac lalu. Antara perkara dibincangkan ialah berkaitan kelangsungan projek-projek mega di negeri itu.

"Kita mengesyorkan kepada kerajaan Pusat menghentikan semua projek mega dan projek-projek yang dirancang kerajaan Pusat di negeri ini. Biar kerajaan hari ini yang merancang untuk penduduk. Rakyat Pulau Pinang yang mahukan pemimpin baru di negeri ini," itulah lebih kurang kata Azhar, selaku Setiausaha Umno Pulau Pinang.

Kenyataan beliau itu disiarkan TV3 malam itu. Ia sekali gus menyerlahkan betapa para pemimpin Umno terlalu mengutamakan balas dendam sehingga sanggup mengetepikan kepentingan umum.

Sedangkan di masa sama, para pemimpin DAP dan Gerakan menunjukkan sikap lapang dada dan bersedia mengetepikan perbezaan politik semata-mata demi kebaikan negeri mereka dan rakyat keseluruhannya. - mns

Ahad, April 20, 2008

Introduction
The period of The Abbasids witnessed the emergence of many independent Islamic states especially at the second half of its reign. This resulted from the weak central government and the fact that the Caliphate is too large to be handled by a single government. Ironically, it is also lead to the downfall of the Caliphate.

THE INDEPENDENT STATES

Spain, Sicily & North Africa
1. The Umayyad of Spain
Period: 138-422 H/756-1031 AC
Founder: Abdul Rahman al-Dakhil
Location: Cordova, Spain
During the fall of the Umayyad , only Abdul Rahman escaped from the slaughter at Abu Futrus. He made his way to Ceuta in Morocco and managed to gather a strong army. They crossed Spain and defeated Yusuf al-Fihri, the Abbasid governor. He captured Cordova and became the Caliph of Spain in 756 AC. There are 10 Umayyad Amir during the period. Spain during the Umayyad progressed rapidly in many fields such as education, music, architectural and other field which shows the remarkable progress of the dynasty. The downfall of the dynasty were lead by the weak central government in Cordova and the existence of many small city states which fought each other. This weaken the Umayyad and with the unification of the Christian powers, the Umayyad faced and uphill struggle to contain their enemies.




2. The Aghlabids
Period: 184-296 H/800-909 AC
Founder: Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab
Location: Qairawan.
When the viceroy of Qairawan refused to submit to the Abbasids, Harun al-Rashid sent his general Ibrahim in 800 AC. He managed to restore order and begun to rule almost as a semi-independent ruler. In fact, after few years, he began potrayed himself as Amir. His descendents became truly independent and held sway over a large area bounded by Morocco on the west and western Egypt on the east. They were an enterprising family and held their own as an independent rulers for 100 years. The built a strong navy and their fleet raided the coasts of France, Italy, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily. They conquered Sicily in 902 AC and made it their base of operations for attacks on Italy. They also seized Malta and Sardinia. It was also under the Aghlabids that North Africa finally accept Islam and all traces of Latin Christians civilization disappeared from the areas forever. The Aghlabids were overthrown by the Fatimids.


3. The Hammadids
Period: 1018-1027 AC
Founder: Ali Ibn Hammad
Location: Andalusia & Cardova.
Though Ali had a lot of Barber blood in him, he pretended to be a descendant of Hadrat Ali.. He was the governor of Ceuta and Tangier, when the last puppet caliphs of Spain were on the decline (1016-1018 AC). By the time, he already conquared Malaga and established himself as the virtual leader ruler of Andalusia and later on declared himself as the Caliph at Cardova. He was followed by two other Hammadids and they held the reins of office till 1027 AC.


4. The Zirids
Period: 1012-
Founder: Ibn Ziri
Location: Granada
Founded by a Barber,Ibn Ziri (1012-1019 AC). Annexed Malaga from the Hammadids in 1051 AC.

5. The Kingdom of Seville
Period: 1023-1091 AC
Founder: House of Bani Abbad
Location: Seville
The founder was the soin of the Qadi of Seville. The Qadi had put an impostor on the throne of Cordova, who closely resembled Hisham II, the Caliph who had been forced to abdicate in 1009 AC. The Qadi’s son ousted the impostor and took over as ruler and called himself al-Mutadid and became king in his own name. The dynasrty did not accomplish much.

6. Dhu al-Nuns
Period: 1032-1085 AC
Founder: Bani Dhu al-Nun
Location: Toledo
Founded by a Barber family of Bani Dhu al-Nun . Lasted till 1085 AC.

7. The Murabits (Al-Munariyyids/ al-Murabithun)
Period: 448-541 H/1056-1147 AC
Founder: Yusof Ibn Tafshin
Location: Morocco
In the middle of the 11th century AC, a religious leader of the Berbers emerged, who established the dynasty of the Murabits, so called because their original leader (Abdullah ibn Yassin) had once lived in a ribat near the Senegal River. He gradually extended his power northwards and finally conquered the whole of Morocco 1056-1084 AC, though the man who really establish Murabit power was Yusof ibn Tafshin .


8. Al-Muwahiddin
Period: 524-667 H/1130-1209 AC
Founder: Muhammad Ibn Tumart
Location: Morocco & Spain
The death of Ali Ibn Yusof marked the decline of the Muwahhid. This was another Barber leader named Ibn Tumart who founded a sect called al-Muwahhidun which later on comquered Morocco and put an end to all Murabits and then made themselves masters of Muslim Spain, which by now was reduced to less than one-half of Spain. At the height of their power, they extended their empire to the borders of Egypt. Most of their time, however , was spent in fighting the Christians in Spain, till at last in 1212, they suffered a great defeat at Las Navas de Tolosa at the hands of the combined forces of all the Christians powers of Spain and weredriven out of Andalusia.


9. The Kalbites
Period: 361-432 H/972-1040 AC
Founder: Hasan Ibn Ali al-Kalbi
Location: Sicily
When the Fatimids moved to Egypt in 361H / 972 AC, the central control in Qairawan weakened and the government became hereditary in the line of the last Fatimid governor, Hasan Ali al-Kalbi. The Kalbites ruled in Sicily till 432 H/ 1040 AC, when there arose violent quarreled between the Sicilian Muslims and the African Muslims which resulted the state split into two. The Normans took this opportunity to attack Sicily which gradually ended the rule of the Muslims.



10. The Nasrids
Period: 1250-1492 AC
Founder:
Location: Granada
The last notable kingdom in Spain and founded at the end of the Abbasid rule. It stronghold was at Granada, called also as Gharnata. The kingdom was not strong politically, but they held to their small corner and built their own tiny world there. Many famous buildings, among which is the famous Alhambra, stand even to this day as witness to their taste and culture.

11. The Rustamids
Period: 160-296 H/ 777-909 AC
Founder: Abd Rahman b. Rustam
Location: Western Algeria
The Rustamids have an importance for the history of North African Islam quite disproportionate to the duration and extent of their political power. Abd Rahman b. Rustam, as a Persian descent founded a Khariji principality centred on Tahart or Tihart. He became Imam of all the Ibadiyya in North Africa. Tahart under the Rustamids enjoyed a great material prosperity and it acquired the name of ‘Little Iraq’.


12. The Idrisids
Period: 172-314 H/ 789- 926 AC
Founder: Idris I, was a great-grandson of Caliph Ali’s son al- Hassan.
Location: Morocco
The Idrisids were the first dynasty who attempted to introduce the doctrines of Shi’ism. The Idrisids of the Rif were threatened when the Spanish Umayyads initiated a forward policy in the Maghrib.



13. The Aghlabids
Period: 184- 296 H/ 800- 909 AC
Founder: Ibrahim I, b. Al -Aghlab
Location: Ifriqiya, Algeria, Sicily.
The first Aghlabids suppressed outbreaks of Berber Kharijism in their territories under Ziyadat-Allah, the negertic members of the family. The Aghlibs were also enthusiastic builder; Ziyadat-Allah I rebuilt the Great Mosque of Qayrawan, and Ahamd that of Tunis, and useful agricultural and irrigation works were constructed especially in the less fertile south of Ifriqiya.

14. The Ziyanids
Period: 1253-1339 AC
Location: Algeria
Succeeded the Muwahhid in Algeria.

15. The Hafsid
Period: 1228-1534 AC
Location: Tunis
Managed to break away from the Muwahhids and establish a long dynasty in the area.



16. The Marinids
Period: 1195-13th Century AC
Location: Morocco
In 1195 AC, they annexed the last stronghold of the Muwahhids in Morocco after gradually encroached the Muwahhids’ lands. In 1269 AC, they took the Moroccan capital and by 1275 AC they mopped up all Muwahhid resistence.


Egypt, Syria & Iraq
17. The Inalids
Period: 490-579 H/1096-1183 AC

18. The Mamluks
Period: 648-922 H/1250-1517 AC
Founder: Izz al-Din Aibak
Location: Egypt, Libyan desert, Barkah , Nubah (Nubiah), Massaw’ah , Syrian border and parts of Arabian Peninsula.
The Mamluk family originated from the slaves. In fact the word Mamluk means slaves (Surah al-Nahl:75). They become the rulers because of their ability and skills in administrating the country . At first , they become private officers of the amirs and sutans. Because of their abilities, they have been freed by their masters. The Mamluk dynasty were devided into 2, the first is called Bahri (648-792 H/1250-1390 AC). The second called Burji which reign was between 748-922H / 1340-1349 AC, after the downfall of the Abbasids. The first Mamluk who became the Caliph is Izz al-Din Aibak. During its superiority, the Mamluks controlled not only Egypt, but other vast areas such as the Libyan desert up to Barkah in the west, Nubah up to Massaw’ah in the south, in the northern area to the Mediterranean sea. They also controlled the Syrian border and one time they also controlled Makkah, Madinah and other Arabian states in the southern Arabian peninsula. They managed to defeat the Tartan (Mongul) under the leadership of Hulagu. Apart from their military achievements, the Mamluks also managed to develop the state in various fields such as in economics, politics and education.

19. The Ayyubids
Period: 564 H-end of the 9th century/ 1169 AC-end of the 15th century
Founder: al-Malik an-Nasir I Salah-ad-Din
Location: Egypt, Syria, Diyarbakr, the Yemen.
Ayyub, the progenitor of the dynasty, was from the Hadhbani tribe of Kurds. The celebrated Saladin was accordingly the real founder of the dynasty. He extinguished the last vestiges of Fatimid rule in Egypt and promoted in their former territories a strong Sunni religious and educational policy. Saladin’s policy was the vigorous prosecution of jihad against the Crusaders, a policy which unified Islamic enthusiasm behind him and enabled him to weld together armies of Turks, Kurds and Arabs in the common cause. Saladin granted out various parts of the Ayyubids empire including the cities of Syria, al- Jazira and the Yemen.

20. The Ismai’ilis
Period: 483-653 H/1090-1256 AC, Persia
493-671 H/1100-1273 AC, Syria.
Founder: Hassan-I Sabbah
Location: Principal line at Alamut in the Elburz, Mts. Of Persia; subsidiary branch in Syria.
In the medieval Islamic times, the extremist Shi’I Isma’ilis were regarded with fear by the Sunnis. Hasan-I Sabbah, a Persian da’I who worked to spread the cause in his own land. Hasan had secured the castle of Alamut in the Elburz, in a region adjacent to Daylam and Azerbayjan.



21. The Mirdasids
Period: 414-72 H/1023-79 AC
Founder: Asad-ad-Dawla Salih b. Mirdas
Location: Aleppo and northern Syria
The Mirsadids were part of the North Arab tribe of Kilab, who in the early eleventh century migrated northwards from the Hilla regions of Iraq to Aleppo. In Aleppo, Salih and his sons Nasr and Thimal had to defend themselves on one side against the Fatimids and Byzantines under Basil II Bulgaroctonus and Romanus III Argyrus.




22. The ‘Uqaylids
Period: 380-489 H/ 990-1096 AC
Founder: Muhammad
Location: Al- Jazira, Iraq and northern Syria
The ‘Uqaylids came from the great Bedouin tribal group of ‘Amir b. Sa’sa’a. It is mentioned that Muslim b. Quraish had a postmaster or local intelligence officer (sahib al-khabar) in every village. So, it seems that the Uqaylids were not entirely a predatory Bedouin dynasty, introduced the Abbasids administration into their territories.

23. The Marwanids
Period: 372-478 H/ 983-1085 AC
Founder: Badh
Location: Diyarbakr
The founder Badh was a Kurdish chief who seized various strongholds on the frontiers of Armenia and Kurdistan. The Marwanids recognised the ‘Abasids caliph at the outset and also had the Fatimids as neighbours in northern Syria. The Fatimids cultural influence was strong in Diyakbakr.

24. The Mazyadids
Period: 350-545 H/ 961-1150 AC
Founder: Sana’ ad- Dawla ‘Ali I b. Mazyad
Location: Hilla and central Iraq
The Mazyadids belonged to the Asad tribe, and were strongly Shi’i in sympathy. The Mazyadids showed themselves skillful organisers and diplomatists, making themselves a significant power in the shifting patterns of alliances in the Iraq of the Seljuq period. After the last Mazyadids, ‘Ali II b. Dubays, Hilla was granted out by Mas’ud to one of his generals and finally Hilla was scattered by an incoming caphical army.


25. The Hamdanids
Period: 293-394 H/905-1004 AC
Founder: Hamdan b. Hamdun
Location: al- Jazira and Syria
The Hamdanids were from the Arab tribe of Taghlib, long settled in al-Jazira. The founder of the family’s fortune, Hamdan b. Hamdun, appears in the later years of the ninth century as an ally of the Kharijis of al- Jazira. The Hamdanids achieved renown as munificent patrons of Arabic literature.

26. The Fatimids
Period: 297- 567 H/ 909- 1171 AC
Founder: ‘Ubaydallah al- Mahdi
Location: North Africa, and then Egypt and Syria.
The Fatimids claimed Alid descent and derived their name from Fatima, daughter of the Prophet and wife of the fourth caliph Ali; but Sunni opponents usually referred to them as the Ubaydiyyun, descendants of ‘Ubaydullah al- Mahdi. The first Fatimid caliph ‘Ubaydallah came from Syria to North Africa. Fatimids began to build for themselves a new capital in Egypt, that of New Cairo. Then, from Egypt the Fatimids extended into Palestine and Syria. In rivalry with the Abbasids, the Fatimids had proclaimed themselves the true caliphs. Egypt and Cairo enjoyed under the Fatimids an economic prosperity and cultural vitality which eclipsed those of contemporary Iraq and Baghdad.

27. The Tulunids
Period: 254- 292 H/ 868- 905 AC
Founder: Ahmad b. Tulun
Location: Egypt and Syria.
The Tulunids represent the first local dynasty of Egypt and Syria to secure autonomy from Baghdad. Ahmad first came to Egypt as deputy of the Abbasid governor there, then acquired the governshiphimself, extending his power into Palestine and Syria also. For the Egyptian historian, the age of the Tulunids was a golden one.

28. The Ikhshidids
Period: 323- 358 H/ 935- 969 AC
Founder: Muhammad b. Tughj al- Ikhshid
Location: Egypt and Syria.
Muhammad b. Tughj came of a Turkish military family which had already been in the Abbasids service for two generations. He was appointed governor of Egypt in 323/ 935, and secured from the caliph ar- Radi the title of Ikhshid.

Arabian Peninsula
29. The Ziyadids
Period: 204-409 H/819-1018 AC

30. The Qaramatians
Period: 281-5th century H/894-11th century AC
Founder: Abu Said ibn Bahram al-Tannabi
Location: Eastern Arabia
In 894 AC, al-Tannabi were sent out to Bahrain where he organized the tribe of Abul Qays and founded an independent state, with his capital at Mumaniyah. The dynasty became so strong and began to raid Iraq, Nejd and Hijaz. For almost 30 years (914-943 AC) they operated from eastern Arabia , creating havoc throughout the region. In 930 AC, Abu Said’s son attacked and captured Makkah and carried away the Black Stone to his capital. They held the interior of Arabia for more than a 100 years.

31. The Rasulids
Period: 626-858 H/ 1229-1454 AC
Founder: al-Malik al-Mansur Nur-ad-Din Umar I
Location: Yemen
The Yemen was, in 569 H/1714 AC, conquered by the Ayyubid Turan-Shah, Saladin’s bother, and ruled by Ayyubid princes down to 626/1229,when al-Malik al-Kamil son, Salah-ad-Din Yusuf, was forced to abandon the province. Then, the Rasulids continued Ayyubid policy in the Yemen, imitating Ayyub titulature and promoting the cause of Sunni Islam. The cultural and political links of the Rasulids with Ayyubid and Mamluk Egypt remained strong.

32. The Sulayhids
Period: 439-532 H/ 1047-1138 AC
Founder: Ali b. Muhammad
Location: Yemen
The Sulayhids ruled in Yemen as adherents of the Isma’ili da’wa. Ali b. Muhammad, a member of the South Arabian tribe of Hamdan and the son of a local qadi or judge. He defeated Abyssinian slave dynasty of the Najahids of the Tihama or coastlands. Under his son al-Mukarram Ahamad, the Sulayhid dominions reached their maximum extent.

Iran (Transoxiana & Khurasan) before the Seljuks

33. The Buyids/Buwaihids
Period : 320-447 H/932-1055 AC
Founder : Ahmad Ibn Buwayh Mu’izz al-Daulah
Location : Iraq

Under al-Mustakfi , Ahmad was made the Amir-ul-Umara ,he assumed the title of Mu’izz al-Daulah and became a virtual ruler. He has two other siblings all of whom had acquired small military commands under the Sammanids kings. They conquered Isfahan,Khuzistan and later on Kirman. In AC, they established themselves at Shiraz and in 945 AD, Ahmad marched on Baghdad and the Caliph accepted him as his protector. The Buwaihids encouraged the Shiite doctrines but they were not extremists and did not make any ideological alliance with the Fatimids of Egypt.



34. The Dulafids
Period: 210-284 H/825-898 AC

35. Banijurids
Period: 233-337 H/848-948 AC

36. Ghaurids
Period: 6th –7th century / 12th –13th century AC
Founder: Ghiatuddin
Location: India

When they were campaigning against the Ghaznavids, Bahram Shah of Ghazni had captured and killed 2 Ghaurid chiefs, Qutbuddin and Saifuddin. Later on, a younger brother of the two named Alauddin attacked the Ghazni and destroy the city of Mahmud. It was the nephew of Alauddin , Ghiathuddin who become the king of the Ghaurids. He made his brother , Shahabuddin Muhammad as the governor of Ghazni and later on famously known in the history of India as Muhammad Ghauri.


37. Ghaznavids
Period: 367-583 H/997-1187 AC
Founder: Alptigin
Location: Ghazni, Afghanistan &India

Named Ghazni after its capital. Founded by Alptigin, a member of royal bodyguard who was the governor of Khurasan. He later on settled at Ghazni and slowly made it into an independent kingdom. His son-in-law Subuktigin (967-997 AC) was an even more capable man and it was he who really founded the dynasty. He made a few conquest , penetrating India as far as Peshawar. At same time they managed to conquer Khorasan from the Samanids.


38. The Samanids
Period: 204- 395 H/ 819-1005 AC
Founder: Ahmad I b. Asad b. Saman, governor of Farghana.
Location: Khurasan and Transoxania.
The founder of the Samanids line was one Saman- Khuda, a dihqan or local landowner in the Balkh district of northern Afghanistan, later claimed descent from the old Sasanid emperors of Persia. Saman Khuda embraced Islam and his four grandsons served the caliph al- Makmun in Khurasan. By keeping the caravan routes across Central Asia open, the Samanids assured the economic stability of their territories. The Samanids amirs made their court of Bukhara a centre not only of the traditional Arabic learning, but also of the renaissance of the New Persian language and literature.

39. The Tahirids
Period: 205-259 H/ 821-873 AC
Founder: Tahir I b. A­l- Husayn, called Dhu-l-Yaminayn.
Location: Khurasan
The aim political and military efforts of the Tahirids were aimed at keeping in check Shi’i du’at or propagandists in the Caspian provinces, and at combating the growing power of the Saffarids in Sistan, an administrative dependency in Khurasan. However, they failed.

40. The Safarids
Period: 254 - 290 H
Founder: Yaacub bin al-Laith and his brother, Amr.
Location: Sijistan (Sistan), Fars.
Founded by Ya’qub who ruled the local Islamic state for almost 30 years. He is a blacksnith who later on became a warlord in the period of Salih bin Nasr (Nadr). Rebelled against Dirham ibn Nasr and in 253 H/867 Ac, he captured the whole Sijistan. However, the Abbasid Caliphate refused to recognised him as the leader in Khurasan . The refusal lead him to attack Baghdad but was fruitless when he was defeated at Dair al-Aqul. In the returned journey , he died in Jundai Shabur on Syawal 265H/879 AC). His brother Amr replaced him and the family continued to rules Sistan up until 558 H/1163 AC.

41. Khawarizm Shah
Period: 305-617 H/917-1220 AC
Founder: Khawarizm Shah
Location: Khurasan, Bukhara, Samarqand & Persia.

The defeat of the Seljuks by the Ghur Turks made the Khawarizm Shah independent. He managed to conquered all the land to the west and west of his territory and became quite a powerful monarh. The greatest ruler of this line was Alauddin Muhammad (1199-1220 AC).

42. The Ilyasids
Period: 320-357 H/932-968 AC

43. The Kakuyids/Kakwayihids
Period: 398-443 H/1008-1051 AC

Caucasus (before the Seljuks)

44. The Shaddids
Period: 340-571 H/ 951-1174 AC
Founder: Muhammad b. Shaddad
Location: Arran and eastern Armenia
The Shaddadids were arose in northern Persia during the ‘Daylami interlude, and it is probable that they were of Kurdish origin. In the middle year of the tenth century, the Kurdish adventurer Muhammad b. Shaddad established himself at Dvin and Ganja then became the capital of the main line of Shaddadids for century.

45. The Sajids /Sadjids
Period: 266-318 H/879-930 AC

46. The Musafirids/Sallavids
Period: 304-483 H/916-1090 AC

47. The Rawwadiah
Period: 4th century-463 H/10th century-1071 AC

48. The Rubuyiah
Period: 660-760 AC

49. The Bawardiah
Period: 665-1349 AC

50. The Badussawids
Period: 665-1599 AC

Seljuks & Atabeg

51. The Seljuks
Period : 429-706 H/1037-1300 AC
Founder : Tughril
Location: Iraq-Parsi,Kirman and Minor Asia.
The Seljuks had 4 great kings; Tughril, his son Alp Arsalan, his grandson Malikshah and Malikshah’s son Sultan Sanjar. Tughril and his son Alp Arsalan increased their power to the west, and soon they also conquered the territory lying between Iraq and the Mediterranean. What was more important, Muslim arms began to prevail against the Byzantines. The Turkmen under Tughril overthrew the splendid civilization which enlightened Buwayhids had built, and everything seemed to fallin ruin, and yet the Seljuks produced kings who raised the glory of Islam higher than ever. This process was repeated under the Mongols, then the Timurid Tartars, and later still under the Ottoman Turks and the Moghul.
52. The Ismailite
Period: 483-653H/1090-1256

53. The Ortuqids
Period: 491-811 H/1098-1408 AC
Founder: Ortuq ibn Akrab
Location: Diarbekr
Ortuq create a small kingdom in Diabekr and founded the Ortuqid dynasty there.

54. The Burids
Period: 97-549 H/1104-1154 AC
Founder: Tughtugin
Location: Damascus
The founder was of the Altabeg and founded his dynasty in Damascus.


55. The Zurgids
Period: 521-619 H/1127-1222 AC

56. The Eldeguzids
Period: 531-622 H/1136-1225 AC

57. The Begleginids
Period: 539-630 H/1145-1233 AC

58. The Kingdom Northern Armenia
Period: 1100-1207 AC
Founder: Sukman ibn Ortuq
Location: Northern Armenia
The founder is the son of Ortuq ibn Akrab of the Ortuqids dynasty. He, with his brother Il-Ghavi fought bravely against the Frankish kingdom and principalities of Palestine.

59. The Kingdom of Azerbaijan
Period: 1136-1225 AC
Founder: Ildigiz
Location: Azerbaijan
The founder is an Altabeg of the Seljuks.

60. The Seljuks of Iraq
Period: 12th-13th century AC
Founder: Muhammad ibn Ildigiz.
Location: Iraq
The founder is the son of Ildigiz . He was so powerful that he became the virtual ruler of the kingdoms of Seljuk of Iraq.

61. The Hazarasfids
Period: 550-827 H/1155-1424 AC
Location: Luristan
A minor state of the Altabegs .

62. The Salghurids
Period: 543-668 H/ 1148-1270 AC
Founder: Muzaffar-ad-Din Songur
Location: Fars
The Salghurids ruled in Fars for some 120 years as tributaries first of the Seljuqs. The founder of the Fars dynasty, Sonqur, took advantage of the warfare and disputes which disturbed the reign of the Seljuq sultan, Mas’ud b. Muhammad. Fars enjoyed considerable prosperity under the rule of Izzad-ad-Din Sa’d b. Zangi.

Anatolia & Turkey
63. Seljuks of Rome




CONCLUSION
The emergence of independent states can be concluded in proving the weaknesses of the Abbasid’s in gripping and binding their territories and provinces in their power. Too much expansions of provinces and inability to rule the variety, may be the other factors leading to the emergence which finally had weaken the whole system and structure of Abbasid until its downfall.


References
Hitti, Philip K. History of the Arabs (6th ed.). London: McMillan 1956

Kennedy, Hugh. The Early Abbasid Caliphate. London :Croom Helm 1981.

Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet & The Age of the Caliphate. New York: Longman 1986.

Mahmud, Sayyid Fayyaz. A Short History of Islam. London: Oxford Press 1960.

Rabu, April 16, 2008

Al-Ghazali

Introduction

Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn. Muhammad al Tusi al-Ghazali , b. 450H/1058M , d. Dec. 18, 1111M/505H ; was an outstanding jurist, theologian and sufi. Al-Ghazali was born in Tus, near the modern town of Mashhad in Khurasan (in present-day Iran). He is one of the most revered personalities in the Muslim world and contributed greatly not only in the three fields but also in the development of Islah and Tajdid movement as well. In his spiritual autobiography , al-Munqidh min al-Dalal (The Deliver from Error), he describes the great crisis that forced him in 1095 to abandon his career in Baghdad and to search for an inner , direct knowledge of the reality of God. He visited Damascus, Jerusalem and Makkah and lived with some disciples in his birthplace , Tus , before he was persuaded to return (1106) to his teaching career. He retired to Tus in 1110. Of his more than 50 books , the Tahafut (The Incoherence of the Philosophers) and the ihya ‘Ulum al-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) are particularly important[1].

Religious and Political Background of al-Ghazali

Prior to his time, Khurasan had already -produced so many eminent sufis that Hujwiri (d. 464H/1071M) called it “the land where the shadow of God’s favor rested”[2]. The town of Tus also produce outstanding personalities such as Firdawsi , the poet and Nizam al-Mulk (d. 485H/1092).

Since al-Ghazali’s life and works were intertwined with the various contending religious and political movement prevailing in the Islamic World of his time, it is necessary to make brief reference to some of them.

The Seljuks of Turk had by now brought the Eastern provinces of the Islamic world under Sunni rule after more than a century of domination by Shi’ite rulers of the Buwaihid house . The life span of al-Ghazali who died in 505H/1111M at the age of fifty three, thus almost coincides with that brief but politically volatile period in the history of the Seljuk Dynasty. Al-Ghazali also lived to witness the swift decline of the dynasty following the assassination of Malik Shah , one of the Seljuks great rulers.

The Seljuk rulers , like al-Ghazali, were Shafiites in law and Ash’arites in their theological persuasion. Consequently, under their leadership, al-Ghazali gained respect ; the most important political figure of Seljuk rule to be associated with al-Ghazali scholarship was Nizam al-Mulk. He was a wazir for about thirty years and brought stability to the Seljuk Empire and succeeded in reducing religious tensions and conflicts among the various schools of faith and Kalam. Nizam al-Mulk even adopted Ash’arism as the official theology of the Seljuk Empire.

Al-Ghazali’s Early Education and Intellectual Interest

Al -Ghazali received his early education in Tus itself. His early education included the learning of Quran , Hadith, Fiqh and Kalam . Other than Quran and Hadith , other knowledge were learned at Naishapur. Al-Ghazali studied Kalam with al-Juwayni , an ash’arite theologian (mutakallim) . It is claimed that al-Juwayni introduced al-Ghazali to the study of philosophy (falsafah)[3].

Another area of study which engaged al-Ghazali’s mind during his stay in Naishapur. He studied its theory and theory and practice under the guidance of al-Farwadhi’s path (tariqah) and imitated all the practices that were put before him. He took part in dhikrs (invocations) and passed through all the laborious and wearying life of a Sufi. But he did not attain what he sought[4].

Al-Ghazali Intellectual Crisis

The true nature of the crisis seems to have been epistemological since it was essentially a crisis of finding the rightful place for each of the human faculties of knowing within the total scheme of knowledge . In particular, it was a crisis of establishing the right relationship between reason and intellectual intuition .

Al-Ghazali must have been troubled by the confrontation between reliance on reason on one hand as in the case of the philosophers; and reliance on supranational experience on the other , as in the case of the sufis. Al-Ghazali claimed that he was delivered from crisis not through rational argument or rational proofs but as of a results of a light (nur) which God cast into his head.

Post-Crisis Intellectual Life and Works

Thus, al-Ghazali upon the resolution of the crisis , proceeded to undertake a thorough study of them. Al-Ghazali completed his first work on Philosophy , Maqasid al-Falasifah (the Purposes of the Philosophers) between 486H/1093M - 1094M and 487H/1094M . But, al-Ghazali would be better known for his work on Tahafut al-Falasifah (the Incoherence of the Philosophers) which was completed in 488H/1095M . In Tahafut al-Filasafah, al-Ghazali rejected the concept of God as propounded by Ibn. Sina and al-Farabi with clear arguments. In al-Ghazali’s Jawahir al-Quran (the Jewels of the Quran), he tells us that the Tahafut is a work of Kalam because it repels “errors and heresies removes doubts and guards the layman’s religious belief against the confusion created by the heresies’. Actually those theories put forth by Ibn. Sina and al-Farabi were based on Greek philosophy which emphasize on reason as the main source of knowledge. The author of the Tahafut may also be regarded as a ‘philosopher’ because he knows philosophy and his criticism is ‘philosophic’. The best known response to al-Ghazali’s attack on ‘certain Muslim philosophers’ was that of Ibn. Rushd Tahafut al-Tahafut.

Al-Ghazali’s Spiritual Crisis

In 1095, al-Ghazali experienced a second personal crisis because of his study of Sufism. This second crisis was far more serious than the first because it affected his emotional and physical health. His physical powers were so weakened that the physicians could not treat him. Al-Ghazali tells us in his autobiography that when he completely lost his ability to make a choice, God delivered him. In 488H/1095M , al-Ghazali left Baghdad and devote himself completely to the Sufi path. For eleven years , he led an ascetic and contemplative life, with occasional returns to his family and society. In 499H/1106M , he again assumed public teaching at Naishpur . His famous four volumes Ihya’ was completed some time before 499H/1106M.

Al-Ghazali’s eleven- year period of spiritual retreat had convinced him that the sufis are those who uniquely follow the way to God, their mode of life is the best of all, their way the most direct of ways and their ethic is the purest.

Having himself attained the highest level of spiritual realization , al-Ghazali reflected on the state of moral and religious decadence in the Muslim community of his time . he questioned whether he should remain in seclusion. At this time, he got a place at the Nizamiyah Madrasah at Naishapur where he was able to teach.

General Conditions in al-Ghazali’s Period[5]

Among the general conditions of decadence prevailing during his time were :

1. The impact of Philosophy which were originated from Greek and Roman civilization. The Islamic scholars who was unfamiliar with it were unable to explain philosophy which based on reason. There are Muslims who based their thinking on philosophical method . This is a danger to Muslim state philosophers during the period feels that reasons and revelation cannot get along. The new discipline introduced through philosophy became a serious challenge to Islam as there are Muslims philosophers who believed that Islam is unreason.

2. The ignorant of rulers which leads to religious differences . New sects were founded which most of it are against the truth path according to the Quran and Sunnah.

3. Moral decay in the whole Islamic world. The teaching of the Quran and the Prophet were no longer the main guidelines. Muslims in all classes no longer refer to the major sources (Quran and Hadith) in any matters.

4. The rulers were living in luxury and extravagant lifestyle. Their style is very much contrast with the life of The Prophet and the Pious Caliph of Islam.

Because of the 4 factors, al-Ghazali lead to the reform of Islamic World via Islah and Tajdid .He realized that the 4 conditions is a real danger to the Muslims and will lead to destruction of Islamic World .According to Sayyid Abul A’la Maududi, among al-Ghazali’s reformation are :

1. To prevent the mis-lead philosophers from spreading their thinking, al-Ghazali and other ulama’ arranged dialogue with them to verify it. Al-Ghazali studied the philosophy and found out that philosophers jump into conclusion against Islam and were misunderstood in understanding Islam.

2. He mended the people who defend Islam against the philosophers but without proper knowledge to counter them.

3. He explained the hikmah of Shariah and gave the people the correct explanation and the clear concept of Islam.

4. He studied all new sects in Islam and clear out the Islamic and the un-Islamic in all the sects . At same time he set the limit of interpretation in Islam .

5. He gave a true code of morality of Islam to counter the decaying morality in Muslim world.

6. He condemned the system of government in the period and asked the official and rulers to reform and based their actions on Quran and Sunnah.

Imam al-Ghazali as a Scholar of Political Science

Many people still believe that political science as a discipline has its roots in ancient Greek and this tradition was later inherited by the modern Western world. But history has proven without doubt that the Islamic civilization has made tremendous contributions to mankind in regards to the establishment of a just and fair political system and order.

Generally , Imam al-Ghazali have been known more for his contributions in the fields of philosophy , tasawwuf and related topics on the development of individuals. But he has been least known for his works which touched on politics. He play a great role in the field of politics especially based on the fact that during his period the rulers were very much against the Islamic teaching. They lived in luxury and ignore the welfare of the people .

Al-Ghazali learn about politics from his tutor Imam al-Juwaini (d. 478H). al-Juwaini is also known as Imammul Haramain. It should be noted that al-Ghazali’s writings on politics are based on his own personal experiences. It is well known that al-Ghazali had served as a scholar of fiqh and also as a legal advisors in palace of the Seljuk Sultans in Nisampur. During the period of Nizam-al-Mulk, for example, al-Ghazali was given lots of trust in advising in matters relating to the administration of the State.

In one of his works, Fatihatul -Ulum , al-Ghazali begins his political philosophy regarding to the matter in the Seljuk State. According to al-Ghazali, the objectives of man’s life can be found in the affairs of religion and the world. A religious system cannot exist unless a world system exist as the world is a garden to the Hereafter. This garden will lead a person to Allah if the person uses the world as a “stepping stone” rather than making the world as a place for worldly pleasure. The worldly affairs of men will not be in order unless these 3 requirements are fulfilled[6] :

1st Requirement

· Fulfilling the needs for foods and sustenance

· Having cloth

· Having shelter

· Politics : as to organize interactions between individuals

2nd Requirement

Involves with the creation of the right tools and machines for the fulfillment of the first requirement.

3rd Requirement

The finishing touches to beautify the second requirement . For example , al-Ghazali connotes the above requirement with human body.

· the fundamentals like heart, liver and the brain.

· the tools and machines like stomach and veins.

· the finishing touches like nail and eyebrows.

Imam al-Ghazali says that what is the meaning of siyasah (politics) is to improve human affairs by guiding the people to the right path so that they may be safe both in this world and in the Hereafter[7].

In the above definition, we could see that the questions of akhlak is closely related to siyasah . Also there are very important roles for fuqaha’ (fiqh scholars) in a state. They are suppose to know all that had to be known on hukm siyasah and ways to bring peace when there are disagreement between different factions. Fiqh scholars are also advisors to the sultan, to guide him and also the people. Because of that, there is a saying that religion (din) and state (daulah) are interrelated. Religion is the foundation and the ceiling whilst the Sultan is the guardian . something which does not have a foundation will come crushing down by its ownself whilst something which does not have a guard will disappear. Al-Ghazali believed that it is not possible for a society to exist before the state ; thus the state is the first level of development and the most important for the establishment of society. Meaning, the individual rights of citizens of the society will not be fulfilled or completed unless the state exist and it has the power to ensure its orders are respected and obeyed.

In many of al-Ghazali’s writings whether in the form of risalah , makalah or kitab had stressed in many occasion on the importance of both the ruler and the state having its sovereignty as to allow it to manage the affairs of religion and the state properly. Al-Ghazali also had laid down do’s and don’ts that should be followed by a ruler :

1. A ruler should understand the real and true value of wilayah or national sovereignty and understand its importance and the responsibility of fulfilling the rights of the wilayah.

2. The Sultan should seek advice from those alim who are not interested in fulfilling their own self interest.

3. The Sultan must not only be able to control himself from acting unjust , but ensure no act of tyranny or injustice are committed by his officers.

4. The Sultan must not be arrogant (takabur) because arrogant will cause a person to look down on others. Instead, sultan should be generous and able to forgive others easily.

5. Do not do unto others what you do not want others to do unto you. A sultan should have this in mind when meeting out others.

6. The needs of the people must be taken care of as earlier as possible.

7. Sultan must not indulge in lavish lifestyle, what else if it is done at the expense of the people. The middle path should always be followed.

8. In executing his task, the sultan should not be harsh and temperamental but be gentle and kind.

9. Sultan should strive to attain the consent of the peoples stipulated by Shariah in regards to important issues.

Although al-Ghazali stresses the need for sultan to be responsible and just in ruling, yet he allows certain flexibility in this regard by allowing the use of coercive measures in order to ensure order in the state prevails.

Conclusion

Because of his contributions , al-Ghazali were considered as the leader of Islah and Tajdid movement in the Muslim world. He came in the period where Islam need a reformer to correct the condition in the period. He was given the title The Defender of Islam because of his contributions to Islam. He also was given the title The Ornament of Islam .

Selasa, April 01, 2008

Siri Patani 1

LATARBELAKANG SEJARAH DAN MASYARAKAT

MELAYU PATANI

Hamdan Dato’ Mohd. Salleh


1.1 Sejarah AwalLangkasuka dan Patani

Dari sudut persejarahan, Negeri Patani memiliki sejarah yang cukup lama, jauh lebih lama daripada sejarah kerajaan-kerajaan Melayu di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu[1]. Patani telah lama wujud sebagai sebuah kerajaan yang agung dan maju dalam pelbagai bidang[2].

1.1.1 Langkasuka dan Patani

Terdapat bukti-bukti yang menunjukkan kerajaan Melayu purba bernama Langkasuka telah diasaskan sekitar kurun pertama masihi.[3] Paul Wheatly turut menyatakan bahawa Langkasuka terletak di Patani sekarang. Pendapat beliau dikuatkan dengan temuan kepingan batu-batu purba peninggalan kerajaan Langkasuka di daerah Jering dan Pujud.[4]

Kerajaan lama ini menguasai satu kawasan yang luas di sekitar Segenting Kra dan di kawasan dimana Patani sekarang berada.[5] Ini dijelaskan dalam sumber-sumber China sekitar abad ke-6 seperti Lang-ya-hsiu yang merekodkan bahawa telah wujud sebuah kerajaan yang telah diasaskan 400 sebelum itu. [6] Turut dinyatakan dari sumber yang sama bahawa kerajaan tersebut merupakan sebuah kerajaan yang makmur dan ramai penduduknya. [7]

Sejarah lama Patani turut merujuk kepada kerajaan Melayu tua berpengaruh Hindu-India bernama Langkasuka ini sebagaimana dikatakan oleh Paul Wheatley[8]. Ini disokong oleh seorang ahli antropologi sosial di Prince of Songkla University di Patani, Seni Madakul bahawa Langkasuka itu terletak di Patani.

Ini ditegaskan juga oleh John Braddle yang menyatakan bahawa kawasan timur Langkasuka meliputi daerah pantai timur Semenanjung, mulai dari Senggora, Patani, Kelantan sampai ke Terengganu, termasuk juga kawasan sebelah utara negeri Kedah.[9]

Kawasan ini telah didatangi pedagang dari Arab, India dan China sejak sebelum masehi lagi[10]. Seorang pengembara China menyebutkan bahawa ketika kedatangannya ke Langkasuka pada tahun 200 masehi, ia mendapati negeri itu telah lama dibuka[11].

Sebelum menjadi negeri Islam, Patani atau Langkasuka waktu itu terkenal sebagai kerajaan Hindu Brahma[12]. Rajanya yang terkenal adalah Bhagadatta yang telah membuat hubungan diplomatik dengan kerajaan China pada tahun 515 M[13]. Ketika kerajaan Sriwijaya berjaya menakluki Nakorn Sri Thamarat (sekarang Ligor di Thailand) pada 775 M dan kemudian mengembangkan kekuasaannya ke selatan (Patani), penduduk Patani mula meninggalkan agama Hindu dan memeluk Buddha[14]. Sebuah berhala Buddha zaman Sriwijaya yang ditemui dalam gua Wad Tham di daerah Yala membuktikan transmisi pertukaran agama dari Hindu ke Buddha[15].

Ketika di bawah pengaruh Sriwijaya inilah Patani mulai menampakkan kemajuan, dengan penduduk yang ramai serta menjadi sebuah kerajaan yang terkenal. Hasil negeri Patani pada waktu itu banyak berasaskan pertanian dan perniagaan. Beberapa pengetahuan bernilai seperti teknik membajak dan berdagang diterima oleh orang Patani dari orang Jawa. Terdapat bukti yang menunjukkan bahawa kerajaan Sriwijaya inilah yang membawa dan mengembangkan bahasa Melayu ke Patani. Nilai ufti yang tinggi yang diberikan pada setiap tahun kepada kerajaan Sriwijaya menunjukkan bahawa Patani ketika itu amat kaya dan makmur.

Abdul Rahman Abdullah berpendapat selepas lenyapnya nama Langkasula, wujud sebuah kerajaan bernama Wurawari yang membawa maksud air jernih. Adalah dipercayai bahawa Raja Bharubhasa dari Langkasuka terpaksa menyerahkan kekuasaannya kepada Siam pada tahun 1345. Baginda telah berundur dan mendirikan kerajaan di Kelantan. Apabila angkatan tentera Gajah Mada berjaya mengalahkan tentera Siam di Temasik pada tahun 1536, baginda mengambil kesempatan untuk menyerang tentera Siam di Langkasuka. Menerusi serangan tersebut, Raja Bharubhasa berjaya merampas semula Kota Mahligai. Menurut rekod, nama Langkasuka ditukar terlebih dahulu kepada Wurawari antara tahun 1357-1398.[16]

Terdapat dua pendapat berkenaan penubuhan Patani. Di dalam buku sejarah negeri Kedah, Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa, ada menyebutkan bahawa negeri Langkasuka diasaskan oleh orang-orang dari Kedah[17]. Dalam pada itu, Phonsawadan Muang Patani atau Hikayat Patani menyatakan seorang raja yang tidak diketahu namanya dari Kota Mahligai bertanggungjawab mengasaskan negeri ini.[18]

Ibrahim Syukri turut menyokong versi Kota Mahligai ini. Beliau menyatakan bahawa seorang raja dari Kota Mahligai tersebut telah membangunkan sebuah kampung pinggir pantai yang kecil ke sebuah pelabuhan yang besar dan sibuk hingga mengorbankan kemakmuran kota itu sendiri. Akhirnya, Kota Mahligai telah ditinggalkan kerana aktiviti perdagangan lebih tertumpu kepada pelabuhan yang baru. Kawasan atau pelabuhan baru itulah dikenali dengan nama Patani.[19]

1.1.2 Kedatangan Islam

Terdapat pendapat yang mengatakan Islam telah sampai ke Kepulauan Melayu seawal kurun pertama Hijrah atau kurun ketujuh Masihi lagi.[20] Dalam masa yang sama. tidak diketahui dengan pasti tarikh yang tepat Patani menerima Islam, namun kalau dilihat kebanyakan karya sastera sejarah dan merujuk kepada Teeuw dan Wyatt dan W.K Che Man, dapat disimpulkan bahawa Patani menjadi negeri Islam pada 1357.[21] Kemasukkan Raja Patani ke dalam Islam boleh diibaratkan sebagai sebuah cerita yang menarik seperti yang tertulis dalam buku-buku sejarah. Dikisahkan pada waktu itu Patani diperintah oleh Raja Phya Tu Nakpa. Raja tersebut dikatakan menderita sakit yang serius[22]. Baginda telah mendapat berita berkenaan seorang bernama Sheikh Said yang beragama Islam[23]. Beliau dikatakan mampu menyembuhkan sakitnya. Syeikh Said tersebut sanggup mengubati penyakit Raja Patani dengan syarat jika sembuh dari sakitnya maka Raja harus memeluk Islam[24]. Namun Raja Phya Tu Nakpa telah memungkiri janji setelah baginda sembuh dan menyebabkan baginda kembali sakit. Kejadian ini terulang sebanyak tiga kali. Pada kali ketiga inilah Raja sedar akan kesilapannya dan berjanji tidak akan memungkiri janjinya lagi. Setelah Raja sembuh dari sakitnya, beliau bersama keluarga dan pembesar istana memeluk Islam. Raja Phya Tu Nakpa telah menukar nama Sultan Ismail Shah. Sejak peristiwa itu, Islam mulai berkembang dan pengaruh Hindu-Budha mulai berkurang, lemah dan akhirnya hilang dari Patani[25].

Raja Phya Tu Nakpa atau nama Islamnya Sultan Ismail Shah dianggap pengasas negeri Patani. Beliaulah yang bertanggungjawab menukar nama kerajaan lama menjadi Patani yang bererti ‘Pantai Ini’.[26] Adalah dihikayatkan baginda secara kebetulan sampai ke suatu tempat yang indah dan sesuai untuk dijadikan negeri di tepi pantai. Riwayat lain mengatakan Patani berasal dari kata ‘Pak Tani’, sempena nama seorang nelayan yang baik budi pekertinya dan menjadi ketua kepada para nelayan di sebuah perkampungan pinggir pantai yang ditemui oleh Raja ketika beliau mencari lokasi negeri baru.[27] Ini disokong oleh Dr. Abdul Ghani Yaa’kub yang menyatakan bahawa nama Patani dikatakan lahir hasil gabungan dua perkataan Melayu iaitu ‘Pak’ dan ‘Tani’ atau Petani.[28]

Setelah berpindah ke Patani, Patani menjadi lebih ramai dan oleh karena lokasinya yang baik, tempat baru ini menjadi makmur dan mewah. Patani menjadi tarikan spara pedagang dari timur seperti Jepun, China, Siam dan Eropah[29]. Tercatat pada 1516 kapal dagang Portugis singgah pertama kalinya di pelabuhan Patani. Pinto, seorang saudagar dan penjelajah asal Portugis menyatakan:

"Pada masa saya datang ke Patani dalam tahun itu saya telah berjumpa hampir-hampir 300 orang Portugis yang tinggal di dalam pelabuhan Patani. Selain dari Portugis didapati juga bangsa-bangsa timur seperti Siam, China dan Jepun. Orang-orang Jepun besar juga perniagaannya di pelabuhan ini." [30]

Dalam pendapat yang lain pula, Muhammad Yusoff Hashim menyatakan nama Patani diberi oleh seorang raja bernama Chao Seri Bangsa.[31] Baginda dikatakan berjanji untuk memeluk Islam jika Kota Mahligai berjaya dikalahkan. Apabila perkara tersebut menjadi kenyataan, baginda telah memeluk Islam dan menghantar wakil baginda bernama Ukon Pola ke Melaka untuk memohon tauliah keabsahan.[32] Sultan Mahmud telah berkenan untuk menganugerahkan watikah tersebut serta memberi gelaran pemerintah Patani dengan nama Sultan Ahmad Shah.[33] Kerajaan Patani kekal dinaungi oleh Melaka sehingga kejatuhan Melaka pada tahun 1511.[34]

1.1.3 Hubungan Awal Dengan Siam

Selepas kemangkatan Sultan Ismail Shah, putera baginda telah ditabal menjadi sultan dengan gelaran Sultan Muzaffar Shah. Baginda telah meneruskan kemajuan negerinya dan sering melakukan lawatan ke kerajaan-kerajaan berdekatan seperti Melaka dan Ayutthya. Namun dalam lawatan ke Siam yang dikenali sebagai Ayutthia, baginda telah dilayan dengan buruk oleh Raja Siam[35]. Raja Siam merasakan kedudukannya lebih tinggi darjat daripada Sultan Patani[36].

Sultan Muzaffar merasa amat terhina di atas layanan Raja Siam.Apabila mendapat tahu bahawa kerajaan Siam diserang oleh Burma pada 1563, Sultan Muzaffar Shah bersama adinda baginda Sultan Mansur Shah memanfaatkan kesempatan ini untuk menyerang Siam. Sebanyak 200 buah kapal perang dan ribuan tentera telah dikerah untuk menyerang Siam. Pada awalnya, wilayah-wilayah Siam jatuh ke tangan Sultan Muzaffar pada penghujung tahun tersebut[37].

Walaubagaimanapun, Sultan Muzaffar telah meninggal secara tiba-tiba di muara sungai Chao Phraya pada tahun 1564 dan dimakamkan di sana.[38] Sebelum meninggal dunia, baginda mewasiatkan takhta kekuasaan kepada adindanya, Sultan Mansur Shah. Diriwayatkan bahawa amanat ini dilakukan kerana hingga ke akhir hayatnya Sultan Muzaffar tidak mengetahui bahawa permaisurinya sedang hamil[39]. Sekalipun Sultan Muzaffar mempunyai anak dari selirnya iaitu Pengiran Bambang, namun dalam tradisi pewarisan takhta di kerajaan Melayu tidak mengiktiraf calon raja dari anak selir.[40] Ini membolehkan Sultan Mansur Shah dilantik menjadi Sultan Patani yang baru (1564-1572).

Sebelum meninggal pada tahun 1572, Sultan Mansur Shah telah mewasiatkan agar anak saudaranya yang merupakan anak Sultan Muzaffar Shah dilantik menggantikan baginda[41]. Namun perlantikkan ini menimbulkan kebencian dan kedengkian dari Pengiran Bambang yang merupakan anak raja dari selir. Ahli sejarah mengatakan bahawa peristiwa ini merupakan titik awal perselisihan dan perebutan kekuasaan dalam istana. Tahun 1573-1584 merupakan tahun-tahun penuh gejolak bagi kesultanan Patani. Tercatat perebutan kuasa sebanyak dua kali yang mengakibatkan pembunuhan yang semuanya melibatkan anak-anak selir[42]. Tempoh ini digelar “Zaman Bertumpah Darah Dalam Istana[43].”

1.2 Kegemilangan dan Kemerosotan Kerajaan Melayu Patani

Patani mencapai zaman keemasannya ketika diperintah oleh empat orang Ratu iaitu Ratu Hijau (1584-1616), Ratu Biru (1616-1624), Ratu Ungu (1624-1635) dan Ratu Kuning (1635-1651)[44].

Pemerintahan ratu-ratu merupakan detik-detik kegemilangan dan kemakmuran kerajaan itu[45]. Kekuasaannya meluas hingga ke Kelantan dan Terengganu sehingga terkenal dengan nama Negeri Patani Besar atau Patani Raya. Kecuali Kerajaan Melayu Johor, tidak ada negeri lain di sebelah timur Semenanjung Melayu yang memiliki kemakmuran dan kekuatan sehebat Patani pada waktu itu[46].

Kekuatan negeri Patani tergambar dari kemampuannya mematahkan empat kali serangan kerajaan Siam pada 1603, 1632, 1634 dan 1638.[47] Patani memiliki 3 buah meriam besar yang sangat masyhur dinamakan Seri Negara, Seri Patani dan Mahalela. Dari segi ketenteraan, kerajaan ini mampu mengerahkan 180,000 pasukan tentera yang terlatih serta kerahan tenaga seramai 10,000 orang[48]. Ini diperkuatkan lagi dengan sebuah kubu yang kukuh dikenali dengan nama Benteng Raja Biru[49].

Walaubagaimanapun, kejayaan ini hanya bertahan selama 67 tahun. Kemangkatan Ratu Kuning pada tahun 1651, Patani mengalami proses kemerosotan secara politik, ketenteraan dan ekonomi. Ini disebabkan Ratu Kuning tidak meninggalkan pengganti yang berwibawa. Berlaku konflik antara pembesar dan menyebabkan keadaan negeri menjadi huru-hara[50]. Situasi ini menyebabkan para pedagang asing memindahkan perniagaan mereka dan menyebabkan hasil kerajaan berkurangan[51].

Patani hanya menampakkan kemajuan ketika dipimpin oleh Raja Sakti I dan Raja Bahar yang mampu menyatukan Senggora (Songkla) dan Pethalung. Namun, pada akhir abad ke-17 ini Patani mulai kehilangan era keemasannya. Ketiadaan peperangan dengan Siam yang merupakan musuh tradisi bersama, menyebabkan wilayah-wilayah gabungan yang membentuk Patani Besar ini mula memisahkan diri.[52] Perang yang terakhir yang melibatkan Patani - Siam terjadi pada 1638. Sejak dari itu, tiada konflik ketenteraan yang ketara melibatkan kedua-dua kuasa di bahagian selatan.

Kekuatan politik dan daya tarik pelabuhannya sebagai pusat dagang utama juga semakin merosot, seiring dengan kemunculan pusat-pusat perdagangan baru seperti Johor, Melaka, Aceh, Banten dan Batavia (Jakarta)[53].

Sebagai negara perairan, ekonomi Patani sangat bergantung pada perniagaan dan perdagangan. Kemerosotannya pada bidang ini telah menyebabkan ekonomi Patani jatuh. Boleh dikatakan sejak awal abad ke-18, pelabuhan Patani hanya menjadi tempat persinggahan sahaja. Justeru itu, ia tidak lagi dianggap pusat perdagangan dan perniagaan yang penting. Ini ditambah dengan faktor ketidakstabilan politik, perpecahan wilayah dan krisis pucuk pimpinan, maka lengkaplah Patani menjadi "Orang Sakit di Semenanjung Melayu".

Lebih malang lagi ketika Patani merosot , Siam di bawah pimpinan Phya Taksin mula bangkit dan berhasil mengusir Burma dari seluruh wilayah Thai[54]. Keinginan untuk mendapatkan pengiktirafan kekuasaan menyebabkan orang-orang Thai melancarkan pelbagai ekspedisi ketenteraan[55]. Kelemahan kerajaan Patani menyebabkan orang Thai mengambil kesempatan ini untuk menyerang dan menakluk Patani pada tahun 1785[56]. Serangan hebat Thai ini berjaya mengalahkan Patani dimana Sultan Mahmud yang memerintah ketika itu mangkat di medan perang[57]. Akibatnya, orang Thai telah melantik Tengku Lamidin sebagai pemerintah Patani yang baru[58].

Tempoh 46 tahun selepas itu menyaksikan orang-orang Patani terpaksa mempertahankan wilayah mereka dari serangan Siam sebanyak lima kali iaitu 1786, 1789, 1791, 1808 dan 1832. Dalam peperangan ini , tentera Siam telah berjaya membakar kota Patani dan memusnahkan kubu-kubu pertahanan tentera Patani yang utama. Tentera Thai telah membawa pulang hampir 4,000 tawanan ke Bangkok dan Ayuthaya[59]. Dua buah meriam besar Patani iaitu Sri Negara dan Sri Patani turut dirampas dan dibawa balik ke sana[60].

Tahanan-tahanan ini dilayan dengan kejam. Mereka dikatakan diikat secara berkumpulan di telinga dan kaki mereka dengan rotan bagi mengelakkan mereka melarikan diri. Dengan berkaki ayam, para tahanan telah dipaksa berjalan kaki sejauh 1,300 km dari Patani ke Bangkok dalam keadaan telinga dan kaki mereka terikat. Apabila sampai di Bangkok, mereka telah dijadikan sebagai hamba untuk menggali terusan-terusan di Bangkok dengan hanya menggunakan tangan-tangan mereka sahaja. Terusan-terusan ini dikenali dengan nama Klong Saen Saeb[61].

Raja-raja Patani dalam keempat-empat peperangan tersebut telah dibunuh oleh tentera-tentera Thai. Satu impak ketara peperangan pada tahun 1786 adalah apabila orang-orang Melayu Patani telah melarikan diri ke negara-negara luar terutama Makkah, negeri-negeri Melayu di Semenanjung dan Pulau Sumatra. Imigrasi ini begitu ketara setiap kali orang-orang Thai melancarkan serangan terutama semasa pemerintahan Tengku Lamidin (1786-1791) dan pemerintah yang dilantik selepas beliau , Datok Pengkalan (1791-1808).

Selepas peperangan antara 1786-1832, Patani ini telah dibahagikan kepada tujuh wilayah yang diperintah oleh sultan-sultan yang berasingan. Tujuh wilayah pentadbiran itu dinamakan Pattani, Nhongchik, Raman, Ra-ngae, Saiburi, Yala dan Yaring. Tempoh 70 tahun ini (1832-1902) menyaksikan sultan-sultan dikehendaki membayar Bunga Emas setiap tiga tahun kepada Raja Thai sebagai tanda kekuasaan Raja Thai[62].

1.2.1 Berakhirnya Kerajaan Melayu Patani

Mulai tahun 1902, Patani berada sepenuhnya dalam cengkaman orang Thai. Apabila Perjanjian Bangkok antara Thai dan Inggeris ditandatangani pada bulan Mac 1909, Patani diserap menjadi wilayah Thai secara rasmi.

Kerajaan Thai telah membahagikan Patani kepada tujuh wilayah pentadbiran yang diperintah oleh pemerintah yang dilantik oleh kerajaan Thai di Bangkok. Walaubagaimanapun, wilayah-wilayah ini secara dasarnya masih dikuasai oleh para pembesar elit tradisonal Melayu yang mempunyai kuasa autonomi[63]. Dalam erti kata lain, raja-raja masih mengekalkan autoriti dalam wilayah yang lebih kecil.

Pada tahun 1899, Raja Chulalongkorn memulakan satu reformasi pentadbiran wilayah melalui Kementerian Dalam Negeri atau Mahatthai. Konsep pemusatan kuasa pusat yang dikenali dengan nama Thesaphiban diperkenalkan[64]. Perubahan yang paling mengejutkan di wilayah selatan adalah apabila pesuruhjaya yang dilantik telah mengambil alih kekuasaan dari raja-raja Melayu. Isu ini tertumpu kepada kutipan hasil cukai yang menjadi sumber utama pendapatan raja-raja Melayu. Ini menimbulkan konflik yang serius antara kedua belah pihak. Desakan dan aduan raja-raja Me;layu tidak dipedulikan oleh kerajaan Thai di Bangkok. Tambah mengeruhkan keadaan, lebih rami pegawai berbangsa Thai di hantar ke selatan hingga menimbulkan masalah kepada golonga elit Melayu Patani[65].

Pada tahun 1898, Raja Pattani Tengku Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin telah membuat aduan kepada kerajaan British di Singapura berkenaan dengan layanan Siam terhadap rakyat baginda[66]. Walaupun pada mulanya ada tanda-tanda menunjukkan Inggeris akan campurtangan, kepentingan perdagangan dan politik menyebabkan tiada tindakan yang sewajarnya dilaksanakan[67].

Perjanjian Bangkok 1909 telah mengukuhkan lagi kuasa orang-orang Thai di selatan. Kerajaan Thai telah meletakkan kawasan dominasi orang Melayu di dalam pentadbiran wilayah. Para birokrat Thai mula menggantikan pembesar-pembesar Melayu sebagai gabenor wilayah secara berperingkat berlandaskan sistem politik Thai.

Menerusi sistem pentadbiran baru, golongan elit Melayu tidak dibenarkan untuk melibatkan diri dalam politik. Dari segi teori, satu-satunya cara untuk melibatkan dalam politik adalah menerusi perkhidmatan awam atau bertanding dalam pilihanraya. Namun, peluang untuk orang Melayu amat terhad dan terbatas. Ini disebabkan oleh latarbelakang pendidikan orang Melayu yang tidak mempunyai asas dalam sistem pendidikan Thai yang merupakan syarat utama.

1.3 Latarbelakang Masyarakat Melayu Patani

Seperti yang telah dibincangkan, Masyarakat Melayu Patani tertumpu di empat wilayah paling selatan. Walaupun secara rasmi mereka merupakan warganegara Thai berbangsa Melayu, mereka lebih dikenali sebagai Muslim Thai[68]. Pada masa lampau, mereka diistilahkan sebagai ‘Malayu’ atau ‘Khaek Malayu’ oleh kerajaan Thai[69].

Dari segi penggunaan bahasa, kebanyakkan mereka boleh berbahasa Thai. Namun, sebahagian besar masih mengekal dan bertutur dalam dialek Melayu tempatan dengan sebilangan kecil bertutur bahasa Thai sepenuhnya. Hanya orang Melayu di wilayah Satul sahaja yang bertutur dalam bahasa Thai sepenuhnya. Oleh kerana pengajian mereka berlandaskan bahasa Melayu dan tulisan jawi, ini menyebabkan mereka membaca, menulis dan bercakap dalam bahasa Melayu[70]. Bahasa Melayu ini memainkan peranan yang amat besar dalam kehidupan mereka. Ini disebabkan pertailian yang begitu ketara antara bahasa Melayu dan Islam.

Seperti di Malaysia, menjadi Melayu bererti beragama Islam. Ia bukan sahaja bersifat etnik, malah merangkumi aspek politik, sosial dan ekonomi. Ini terbukti dengan sistem pendidikan berasaskan pondok dan madrasah yang begitu ketara di empat wilayah-wilayah selatan tersebut.

1.5.1 Ekonomi

Penguasaan sepenuhnya kerajaan Thai ke atas wilayah-wilayah dominiasi Melayu telah membawa satu impak yang negatif dari segi ekonomi. Struktur ekonomi telah dikuasai oleh kapitalis cina dan birokrat bangsa Thai[71]. Para peniaga cina ini menguasai bidang peladangan dan perdagangan hingga menyukarkan penduduk tempatan untuk bersaing dalam perniagaan[72].

Walaupun ada yang terlibat dalam perniagaan kecil, kebanyakkan orang Melayu Patani bekerja sendiri sebagai petani, pekebun getah dan nelayan[73]. Wilayah-wilayah selatan Thai kaya dengan sumber-sumber semulajadi yang memungkinkan penduduk-penduduk menanam tanaman tempatan seperti getah, kelapa dan buah-buahan tropika. Pantai yang berteluk juga membekalkan ikan-ikan yang banyak kepada para nelayan. Walaubagaimanapun, pertanian dan perikanan merupakan pekerjaan bermusim. Ini ditambah dengan ancaman dan saingan dari aktiviti perikanan berskala besar yang semakin berkembang[74].

Kajian terbaru mendapati wilayah-wilayah ini juga kaya dengan hasil-hasil galian seperti bijih timah, emas dan gas asli. Namun, jika diukur dari segi ekonomi wilayah ini masih mundur jika dibandingkan dengan wilayah-wilayah lain di Thailand[75].

1.5.2 Keagamaan

Dari sudut yang lain, pimpinan keagaamaan turut memainkan peranan yang amat besar dalam masyarakat. Golongan elit agama mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat terutama dalam menjadi orang tengah antara masyarakat dan kerajaan. Mereka amat dihormati dan diterima sebagai pemimpin masyarakat[76].



[1] Lihat Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Patani Dalam Tamadun Melayu, hlm. 12.

[2] Untuk perbincangan lebih mendalam berkenaan topik ini, lihat Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm.12. Lihat juga D.G.E. Hall, A History of South East-Asia (London : McMillan, 1981).

[3] Lihat D.G.E. Hall, A History of South East-Asia, hlm. 30. Ahmad Omar Chapakia dalam buku beliau menyatakan sebuah kerajaan tua di bahagian Selatan Atas Thai bernama Tambarlinga turut wujud waktu itu. Kerajaan ini dikatakan sebuah kerajaan yang berpengaruh sekitar abad ke-12. Langkasuka pula merupakan kerajaan yang dari sego geografinya terletak di wilayah Selatan Bawah. Lihat Ahmad Omar Chapakia, Politik Thai dan Masyarakat Islam, hlm. 4.

[4] Lihat Paul Wheatley, The Golden Chersonese, Studies in the Historical Geography of the Malay Peninsula Before A.D. 1500 (Kuala Lumpur : Penerbit UM, 1966).

[5] Lukman Thaib, The Politics and Governments, hlm. 92. Lihat juga Paul Wheatley, The Golden Khersonese.

[6] Lukman Thaib dalam penjelasan beliau telah menggunakan sumber dari artikel G.E. Marrison (lihat nota hujung 138) , ‘A Visit to Patani’ dimana dalam halaman 24-25 terdapat pernyataan sumber-sumber China berkenaan kerajaan Langkasuka.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Paul Wheatley, The Golden Khersonese,hlm. xx.

[9] John Braddle, ‘Notes on Ancient Times in Malaya, dlm. JMBRAS, Jilid 23, Bhg. 1, 1950, hlm. 1-35.Lihat juga Mohamad Dahlan Mansoer, Pengantar Sejarah Nusantara Awal (Kuala Lumpur : DBP,1979).

[10] Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 5.

[11] Sumber terawal dari China menyebut bahawa Lang-ya-Hsiu dikatakan muncul sejak abad ke-2 Masihi atau sekitar 100 Masihi. Lihat Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 2.

[12] Untuk perbincangan lanjut berkenaan kerajaan-kerajaan Hindu di Asia Tenggara waktu itu, lihat George Coedes. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia (Kuala Lumpur : Penerbit UM, 1968). Lihat juga Hall, A History of South-East Asia.

[13] Lihat George Coedes. The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, hlm. 51.

[14] Lihat Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 8.

[15] Berdasarkan penulisan pakar ahli arkeologi Prof. Nik Hassan Shuhaimi, terdapat bukti bahawa kawasan tersebut mempunyai kaitan dengan Srivijaya kerana tulisan yang dijumpai di Ligor merupakan tulisan Srivijaya dinasti Sailendra bertarikh 775 M. Terdapat juga arca Ávalokitesvara’yang dijumpai di Sathingpra (selatan Thailand) yang ada kaitandengan pengaruh dan hubungan dengan Srivijaya. Lihat Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman, Arkeologi Pra-Islam Pesisir Selat Melaka Evolusi atau Migrasi (Bangi : Penerbit UKM, 1999) hlm. 29-30.

[16] Untuk perbincangan lanjut, rujuk Abdul Rahman Abdullah, Sejarah dan Tamadun Asia Tenggara, Sebelum dan Sesudah Pengaruh Islam (Kuala Lumpur : Utusan Publications, 2000), hlm. 312.

[17] Lihat W.K. Che Man, Muslim Separatism, hlm. 32.

[18] Lukman Thaib, The Politics and Governments, hlm. 93. Lihat juga Abdul Rahman Abdullah, Sejarah dan Tamadun Asia Tenggara, hlm. 313.

[19] Ibrahim Syukri, History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, hlm. 14. Tidak dapat dipastikan tarikh sebenar secara tepat berkenaan dengan peristiwa ini. Menurut Lukman Thaib, penulisan Tom Pires menyatakan wilayah tersebut telah wujud sejak 1370. Sementara itu, pelayar-pelayar masih merujuk wilayah ini sebagai Langkasuka semasa pelayaran Laksamana Cheng-ho sekitar tahun 1403. Lihat Lukman Thaib, The Politics and Governments, hlm. 93.

[20] Mahayudin Haji Yahya, Islam di Alam Melayu (Kuala Lumpur: DBP, 1998),hlm. 13. Pada pendapat beliau Islam telah sampai ke daerah utara Sumatera pada ketika itu dan kerajaan Islam yang pertama ialah Perlak yang diasaskan oleh orang Arab sekitar tahun 840 Masihi.

[21] Teeuw dan Wyatt, Hikayat Patani, hlm. 222. Lihat juga W.K. Che Man, Muslim Separatism, hlm. 32. Dalam penerangan Dr. Abdul Ghani Yaa’kub bertarikh 14 Mac 97, beliau menyatakan bahawa kerajaan Patani ini diasaskan sekitar abad ke-10. Beliau turut menyatakan bahawa Raja Patani memeluk Islam sekitar tahun 1350 dan memakai gelaran Sultan Ismail Shah.

[22] Adalah dipercayai bahawa penyakit yang dihidapi oleh Raja Patani ini merupakan penyakit kusta. Lihat Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, Bab 2, hlm. 44, nota kaki 4. Untuk maklumat lanjut, rujuk Teeuw dan Wyatt, The Story of Patani, hlm. 148-152. Hikayat Patani juga boleh didapati menerusi laman web PULO.

[23] Terdapat beberapa versi dan ejaan yang berbeza berkenaan nama tokoh yang bertanggungjawab mengislamkan Raja Patani itu . Sebagai contoh dinyatakan Tuan Sheikh Syafialudin dalam Ibrahim Syukri, History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, hlm. 16; Sheikh Said disebut dalam Teeuw dan Wyatt, The History of Patani, hlm. 68-69 dan 149; Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 31 dan Ahmad Fathy al-Fatani, Ulama’Besar Dari Patani, hlm. 16; Nama Shyakh Said tercatat dalam Hasan Madmarn, The Pondok and Madrasah, hlm. 14. Dalam W.K. Che Man, Muslim Separatism, hlm. 34, tercatat bahawa pendakwah Islam yang menyembukan Sultan Patani bernama Sheikh Said atau Safi-uddin. Abdul Rahman Abdullah dalam Sejarah dan Tamadun Asia Tenggara dalam halaman 313 menyatakan bahawa Syaikh Said al-Barsisa (seorang ulama’dari Pasai) berjaya mengislamkan baginda pada tahun 1457. Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek pula menjelaskan bahawa terdapat tiga ulama’bersahabat yang bertanggungjawab menyebarkan agama Islam di sana. Mereka merupakan Sheikh Said al-Barsisa atau Tok Pasai, Sheikh Shaf ad-Din al-‘Abasi dan Sheikh Gombak Abdul al-Mubin. Sheikh Said merupakan ulama’yang bertanggungjawab menyedarkan Raja Patani supaya memeluk Islam. Lihat Mohd. Zamberi Abdul Malek, Wadi al-Hussein, hlm. 21.

[24] Ibid., hlm. 31.

[25] Terdapat juga pendapat yang menyatakan bahawa Islam telah bertapak di Patani seawall tahun 1150. Setelah berkembang selama 300, barulah Islam diterima oleh pemerintah. Lihat Abdul Rahman Abdullah, Sejarah dan Tamadun Asia Tenggara, hlm. 313.

[26] Lihat artikel “Hilangnya Sebuah Negeri Islam Melayu” dalam laman web PULO www.pulo.org (20 Mac 2001).

[27] Ibrahim Syukri, History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, hlm. 14.

[28] Lihat Abdul Ghani Ya’kub, ‘Alam Malayu wal Aqliyyat al-Islamiyyah’, hlm. 23.

[29] Lihat Virginia Matheson dan M.B. Hooker, “Jawi Literature in Patani : The Maintenance of An Islamic Tradition” dlm. JMBRAS, Vol. 61, Bah. 1, No. 254, hlm. 6.

[30] Artikel “Hilangnya Sebuah Negeri Islam Melayu”.

[31] Muhammad Yusoff Hashim, terj. D.J. Muzaffar Tate, The Malay Sultanate of Malacca (Kuala Lumpur : DBP, 1992) hlm. 39.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Ibid. Buku ini tidak menyatakan tarikh atau tahun sebenar peristiwa tersebut. Walaubagaimanapun, disebut dinyatakan bahawa dari tahun 1488 hingga 1511, Sultan Mahmud bertanggungjawab menjamin keselamatan dan kemakmuran kerajaan-kerajaan kecil di bawah naungan kerajaan Melayu Melaka.

[34] Ibid., hlm. 145.

[35] Untuk perbincangan lanjut berkenaan kerajaan Ayutthya, lihat Charnvit Kasetsiri, The Rise of Ayudhya : A History of Siam in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (Kuala Lumpur : Oxford University Press, 1976), Phra Sarasas, My Country Thailand : Its History, Geography and Civilisation (Bangkok : t.p., 1960).

[36] Ibrahim Syukri, History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, hlm. 20.

[37] Ibid. Peristiwa serangan ke atas Ayutthya juga diceritakan dengan panjang lebar dalam Teeuw dan Wyatt, The Story of Patani, hlm. 154-161.

[38] Untuk salasilah Kerajaan Melayu Patani lihat artikel laman web PULO, ‘ Ringkasan Sejarah Melayu Patani : Summary of the History of the Kingdom of Malay Patani’ dalam www.pulo.org.

[39] Menurut pendapat, semasa baginda berada di Ayuthya, pemaisuri yang sedang hamil telah melahirkan seorang putera. Putera tersebut diberi nama Patik Siam mengambil sempena tempat mangkatnya ayahanda baginda. Lihat A. Bengnara, Patani Dahulu dan Sekarang, hlm. 13.

[40] Lihat “Hilangnya Sebuah Negeri Islam Melayu”. Anak selir membawa maksud anak hasil hubungan raja dengan gundik atau isteri tidak rasmi. Lihat Noresah Baharom ,et.al., Kamus Dewan Edisi Ketiga (Kuala Lumpur : DBP, 2000), hlm. 1222. Dalam erti kata lain, anak raja yang bukan dari pemaisuri baginda.

[41] Putera Sultan Muzaffar Shah yang berusia 10 tahun waktu itu merupakan pewaris sah kesultanan Patani.

[42] Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 42-44. Tempoh ini menyaksikan pemerintahan singkat Sultan Patik Siam (1572-1573) dan Sultan Bahadur Syah (1573-1584).

[43] Lihat A. Bengnara, Patani Dahulu dan Sekarang, hlm. 14.

[44] Lihat Ibrahim Syukri, History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, hlm. 38.

[45] Ibid., hlm. 73.

[46] Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Patani Dalam Tamadun Melayu, hlm. 3.

[47] Lihat Ibrahim Syukri, History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, hlm. 36.

[48] Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 77.

[49] Lihat Ibrahim Syukri, History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani, hlm. 36.

[50] Lihat Nik Anuar Nik Mahmud, Sejarah Perjuangan Melayu Patani, hlm. 19.

[51] A. Teeuw dan D.K. Wyatt, The History of Patani, hlm. 72. Lihat juga halaman 94 dalam buku yang sama.

[52] Wilayah-wilayah dalam gabungan Patani Besar meliputi Kelantan, Trengganu, Patani Awal, Senggora dan Pethalung. Siam atau Thai ketika itu sedang berperang dengan Burma. Sedikit sebanyak peperangan tersebut menjejaskan ekonomi Patani yang sudah sedia lemah. Lihat Nik Anuar Nik Mahmud, Sejarah Perjuangan Melayu Patani, hlm.19.

[53] Untuk perbincangan lanjut, lihat Sivachandralingam Sundararaja, Perdagangan dan Pelabuhan Bebas, Sejarah dan Perkembangannya (Shah Alam : Fajar Bakti, 1997).

[54] Terdapat sumber-sumber luar yang membincangkan berkenaan sejarah Thai-Patani terutama dengan terbinanya kota Bangkok pada tahun 1782. Lihat Lihat Virginia Matheson dan M.B. Hooker, “Jawi Literature in Patani”, hlm. 6.

[55] Lihat Nantawan Haemindra. “The Problem of the Thai-Muslims in the Four Southern Provinces of Thailand,” dalam Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 8 No. 1, March 1977.

[56] Serangan ini diketuai oleh Putera Mahkota Siam. Ekspedisi ketenteraan ini dilancarkan terhadap kawasan-kawasan bebas di selatan termasuk Kelantan dan Terengganu. Uthai Dulyakasem“The Emergence and Escalation of Ethnic Nationalism : The Case of the Muslim Malays in Southern Siam”, dlm. Taufik Abdullah & Sharon Siddique (peny.) . Islam and Society in Southeast Asia (Singapore : ISEAS, 1986), hlm. 211.

[57] Lihat A. Bengnara, Patani Dahulu dan Sekarang, hlm. 32. Orang-orang Thai berjaya mendapatkan pengiktirafan yang diinginkan dari kawasan-kawasan telah dikalahkan. Nantawan Haemindra, “The Problem of the Thai-Muslims” dalam hlm. 199-201 membincangkan secara menyeluruh berkenaan dengan aspek ini.

[58] Ibid., hlm. 33. Lihat juga Nik Anuar Nik Mahmud, Sejarah Perjuangan Melayu Patani, hlm. 20.

[59] Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 98.

[60] Meriam-meriam tersebut hingga ke hari ini masih diletakkan di pintu gerbang hadapan Kementerian Pertahanan Thailand di Bangkok. Lihat A. Bengnara, Patani Dahulu dan Sekarang, hlm. 33. Gambar meriam-meriam ini boleh dilihat dalam laman web PULO.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Mohd. Zamberi A. Malek, Umat Islam Patani, hlm. 102. Lihat dibawah topik ‘Tujuh Negeri Patani’.

[63] Lihat Ivan Lee Synn Leng, “Separation in Southern Thailand : Prospects for A Solution” dlm. The Haegate Papers, Vol. 6, 1999, hlm. 18.

[64] Lihat Nantawan Haemindra, “The Problem of the Thai-Muslims” dalam hlm. 201-202. Lihat juga W.K. Che Man, Muslim Separatism, hlm. 62.

[65] Lihat Margeret L. Koch, “Patani & the Development of A Thai State” dlm. JMBRAS, Vol. 50 Bhg. 2 No. 232, 1977, hlm. 71.

[66] Untuk perbincangan lanjut, rujuk Surin Pitsuwan. “Islam And Malay Nationalism : A Case Study of The Malay – Muslims of Southern Thailand”. Tesis Ph.D. Harvard University, 1982, hlm. 31. Lihat juga Margeret L. Koch, “Patani & the Development of A Thai State”, hlm. 74.

[67] Kementerian Luar British telah menolak cadangan Pejabat Tanah Jajahan British dengan menyatakan ‘ Colonial Office suggestions were rejected because they would unduly alarm the king and make him think the British were trying to seize his territory ….. British policy continued to suppoet Siam’s claimed authority.’ Lihat Margeret L. Koch, “Patani & the Development of A Thai State”, hlm. 81.

[68] Uthai Dulyakasem“The Emergence and Escalation of Ethnic Nationalism”, hlm. 216.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Lihat Hasan Madmarn, The Pondok and Madrasah, hlm. 49.

[71] Uthai Dulyakasem“The Emergence and Escalation of Ethnic Nationalism”, hlm. 219.

[72] Walaupun dari segi statistik etnik cina hanya 6 % dari jumlah keseluruhan penduduk empat wilayah ini, mereka menguasai sebahagian besar pai ekonomi. Kebanyakkan premis perniagaan dimiliki oleh orang-orang cina. Malah, hampir semua lading-ladang getah dikuasai oleh mereka. Monopoli perniagaan cina bukan sahaja berlaku di bahagian selatan, malah di wilayah-wilayah lain di Thailand. Semenjak zaman Raja Mongkut hingga zaman Raja Prajadhipok, orang cina memonopoli sektor pekerjaan terutama menerusi sistem corvee atau buruh paksa. Sistem ini telah membuka peluang orang cina dalam sektor ekonomi yang lain. Akibatnya banyak kerja dimonopoli oleh bangsa cina. Selepas berlaku revolusi, satu undang-undang telah dibentuk. Undang-Undang Kenderaan 1939 diluluskan dimana teksi hanya boleh dipandu oleh orang Thai sahaja. Ini adalah satu kesinambungan Dekri DiRaja 1932 yang menkhususkan 27 pekerjaan untuk orang-orang Thai. Pekerjaan ini termasuklah peguam, pembuat batu-bata, penjahit pakaian, pembuat topi, pengukir imej Buddha, pedandan rambut, pembuat payung dan lain-lain lagi. Undang-Undang Sarang Burung 1939 dan Akta Garam 1939 pula diluluskan untuk menafikan penguasaan dan monopoli orang cina dalam bidang tersebut yang sekaligus menampakkan dasar anti-cina. Lihat Frank H. Golay, et.al.(1969) Underdevelopment and Economic Nationalism in Southeast Asia (New York : Cornell University Press, 1969), hlm. 267, 274 dan 315.

[73] Ahmad Omar Chapakia, Politik Thai dan Masyarakat Islam, hlm. 32. Lihat juga P.B. Lafont terj. Mohd. Zain Musa, Semenanjung Indochina Suatu Pengenalan (Kuala Lumpur : DBP, 1996) hlm. 89.

[74] Untuk perbincangan lanjut berkenaan petani dan nelayan di wilayah selatan Thai, lihat Thomas M. Fraser, Fishermen of South Thailand : The Malay Villagers (New York : Holt, Richard and Winston, 1966). Lihat juga Rusembilan : A Malay Fishing Village in Southern Thailand (Ithaca, New York : Cornell University Press, 1960) oleh penulis yang sama.

[75] Lihat Ahmad Omar Chapakia, Politik Thai dan Masyarakat Islam, hlm. 31.

[76] Uthai Dulyakasem“The Emergence and Escalation of Ethnic Nationalism”, hlm. 225.

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