dari Changkat Ning
Ahad, Mac 29, 2009
dari Changkat Ning
Sabtu, Mac 28, 2009
What is sociology ? Sociology has defined by Faris as,
“ A branch of the science of human behavior that seeks to discover the causes and effects that arise in social relations among persons and in the intercommunication and interaction among persons and groups”.
Comte outline the methods to be applied to the study of the society as the observation, analysis of observation and deriving conclusions. Historical social investigation also is important in society. Sociology on the basis of this, is a study of society based on observation
The sociological approach to jurisprudence suggest that law is a social phenomenon reflecting human needs, functioning as an organized system and embodying within its fundamental principles and substantives rules a society’s basic values.
The appropriate methodology of jurists who favor this approached is based on the systematic analysis of the structure , functions and value of the legal systems. Its distinctive features from the other schools of law can be deduced by referring to the philosophy or concept of law in view of these three theoreticians ; Jhering , a German jurist; Ehrlich , an Austrian jurist and Pound, the pioneer of the analytical ,systematic approach to jurisprudence.
Jhering : the balancing of interest
Rudolf von Jhering (1818 –1892) for instance who was an outstanding figure of the early sociological school was a ‘ social utilitarian ’ who believed that the essence of law could be expressed by reference to its very purpose which was social .Law existed according to him is to protect the interests of individuals and society by balancing and coordinating interests.
Law is the sum of the conditions of social life in the widest sense of that term, as secured by the power of the State through the means of external compulsion. Interest dictate purpose , they need to be studied if the purposes of law are to be understood:
· The law should attempt to achieve an equilibrium of individual and social principle purposes.
· The creation of unity from diversity demands an effective law which will reflect social purpose and contribute to a partnership of individual within the society.
Ehrlich : the ‘living law’
Another sociological jurist , Ehrlich (1862-1922) differentiated ‘norms for decision’ (formal laws and other regulations) from ‘norms of conduct’(self-generating social rules).The norms of conduct according to him are often contrast to the rules enforced by the State and constitute the ‘living law’, which reflects the truth values of society.
A vital task for legislators, judges and jurists is to discover the ‘living law’; this involves studying much extra-legal data when investigating a legal problem. The province of jurisprudence must be boundless because the facts of the living law are the facts of social life entirety.
Pound : the balancing of interest
Roscoe Pound (1870-19640) on the other hand gives the modern approach to the sociological school. He defines an interest as :
“ a demand or desire or expectation which human beings either individually or in groups or associations or relations, seek to satisfy, of which therefore the adjustment of human relations and ordering of human behavior through the force of a politically organized society must take account”.
Law according to him is as a social institution created and designed to satisfy human and social wants with least sacrifice. Therefore, the principal task for legislators, judges and jurists is the balancing of individual, public and social interest.
He opined that the sources of legal rules are religion , custom, philosophical idea, adjudication, scientific discussion and legislation. He further mentioned that in the sociological jurisprudence , the law has to be made with the objective to bring about harmony an orderliness in the society. He said that, for making such law we have to do the following:
· Study of the existing law from the point of view of its effect in the society.
· Social observation for legislation, to make study for making law more effective.
· Study of judicial method
· Study of legal history
· Study of social justice and economics justice
· Setting up ministry of justice and law
Thus , what can we conclude here is that the sociological jurisprudence is the latest trend in the legal theory which linked with the discrediting the legal positivist of John Austin and Historical pessimist of Savigny which both of them had closed their eyes to ever increasing gap between law and society.
It emerged with the growth and development of social science which enriched and quickened the phase of the growth of social oriented law and legal institution. Accordingly, law became a synthesis of the rest of social sciences and begin to understood in terms of utility, purpose, effect and function.
Sociological jurisprudence strive to study law in terms of immediate needs and requirements of individuals and others in the varying groups and it concerns wholly the effects or results on society rather treating law as a will of God or command of sovereign or universal reason or volkgeist of the people.
There are therefore five distinctive features of sociological school that can be laid down,there are as follows:
1. Social jurist regards the working of law rather than abstract content of law.
2. Whereas, analytical , historical and philosophical jurists consider law in terms of deliberate command or abstract right reason or unconscious silent feature, the sociological jurists regard law as a social institution, consciously designed on the basis of experience and need of the people.
3. Sociological jurists emphasized on social requirements and purposes which the law must attempt to answer.
4. The cardinal feature of sociological jurisprudence is to emphasize the functional and operational aspect of law and legal institutions, doctrines and percepts as a tool technique to observe the varying individual of social interest.5. Finally, the socio-jurist are diverse in their perception of law, some are pragmatist, imprecesist or technical. Others are bold minded defining law in terms of judicial decision, others focusing too much on its functional aspect taking into account it’s purpose to serve the interest of society.
Isnin, Mac 23, 2009
March 22, 2009 @ Anfield
|Liverpool||5 - 0||Aston Villa|
|8'||Dirk Kuyt||1 - 0|
|33'||Alberto Riera||2 - 0|
|39'||Steven Gerrard (pen)||3 - 0|
|50'||Steven Gerrard||4 - 0|
|65'||Steven Gerrard (pen)||5 - 0|
Liverpool are breathing down Manchester United's necks in the Premier League title race after destroying fifth-placed Aston Villa 5-0.
It was the third stunning Liverpool victory in 12 days, having previously put four past Real Madrid and Manchester United.
The champions' lead is now one point - they also have a game in hand - but Liverpool have now scored more goals than Sir Alex Ferguson's men and have also wiped out their goal-difference advantage.
Villa had no answer to a side with a driven desire to take the title from under United's noses.
Steven Gerrard scored a hat-trick with a free-kick and two penalties, with the latter one following the dismissal of goalkeeper Brad Friedel for bringing down Reds striker Fernando Torres.
In the first-half Dirk Kuyt and Albert Riera had scored, before Gerrard took over with his set-piece onslaught.
Liverpool had Xabi Alonso and Alvaro Arbeloa back from respective ankle and hamstring injuries that ruled them out of last weekend's win at Manchester United, with Sami Hyypia and Lucas relegated to the bench.
They were joined there by defender Daniel Agger, who has only played one game since mid-December after a variety of injury problems.
Villa boss Martin O'Neill left out striker Gabriel Agbonlahor, who has scored only twice since before Christmas and was booed by his club's own fans last weekend. Defender Zat Knight was also on the bench, with John Carew and Curtis Davies back in the side.
There was still a solemn start to the proceedings, with a minute's silence following the death yesterday of 56-year-old club secretary Bryce Morrison, after he had flown back from the Champions League draw in Switzerland.
Morrison, who had worked at Anfield for 17 years, suffered a heart attack at home. Both teams wore black armbands.
The game got off to a blistering start, and after eight minutes Liverpool were ahead.
Alonso's header from Gerrard's free-kick cracked against the bar, and Dirk Kuyt reacted quickest to blast the ball home from 12 yards.
At the other end Ashley Young's cross arrowed in from the left and Carew's flick at the near post almost caught out Jose Reina - but the goalkeeper tipped the ball over the angle.
The contest was ferocious, and Gerrard was then rightly booked for a fierce, late, challenge on Davies.
Then Reina made another outstanding save to his left to claw away a towering header from Carew - who played under Benitez at Valencia.
Liverpool were relentless and after 33 minutes they claimed a second goal.
Reina's 80-yard clearance was allowed to bounce once on the edge of the area by a Villa defence pre-occupied with Torres and Riera took full advantage by smashing the dropping ball high into the net.
It could have been three when Arbeloa intercepted a bad Friedel clearance inside the Villa box, but he chose to pass to Torres rather than shooting himself.
But the third was not long coming. After 39 minutes Riera controlled a searching crossfield pass from Kuyt, and was brought down in the box by Nigel Reo-Coker. Gerrard smashed home the spot-kick.
Any thoughts of a Villa revival were crushed after 50 minutes when Carlos Cuellar brought down Kuyt on the edge of the box and Gerrard drilled the free-kick low to Friedel's left and into the bottom corner.
Former Reds striker Emile Heskey had a header held by Reina, but was by now being employed on the left trying to halt Arbeloa and Kuyt's flow down the flank - with Young switched to a central attacking role.
The ploy did not last long - Agbonlahor replaced Heskey after 58 minutes, with Young back on the line- but things got worse for Villa after 63 minutes when Friedel was dismissed for clashing with Torres and Gerrard drilled home the fifth past Villa's reserve keeper Brad Guzan.
Lucas, Agger and David Ngog replaced Alonso, Arbeloa and Gerrard in the closing minutes of a comprehensive victory.
Benitez was disappointed from the point that Villa goalkeeper Brad Friedel was sent off for conceding Liverpool's second penalty - which resulted in their final goal.
From then on, with 25 minutes left, the Anfield men took their foot off the gas.
They had already overhauled United's once superior goal difference and have now scored more times than the champions this season.
"There were times after the fifth goal when we should have gone on and scored more,'' said Benitez. "We should have kept going, scored more and made sure that our goal difference was better when we were playing against 10 men.
"You never know what we will need, how many more goals we could have scored during that period. Don't get me wrong. I was happy with the performance and the result, but we should have gone on and scored more.''
Benitez is content now that Liverpool have put themselves back into a position from which they can help shape their own destiny.
"As far as the title chase is concerned, we just have to keep doing our job - we must not be concerned about United's results and how they are playing,'' he believes. "If United do make mistakes we must be ready, and that means carrying on doing what we are doing and winning points.
"We are playing well, and they will see that we are playing well and trying to win every game. We have eight games left, and every one must be won - and be treated as a cup final. Certainly we must maintain this momentum, and when we are playing well it just increases confidence.
"We now have an international break, so the players must come back from that, re-group and start playing again just as we are at the moment.''
Aston Villa boss Martin O'Neill conceded his side were overpowered.
"We were well beaten by an exceptional Liverpool side,'' he said. "But we did contribute to our own downfall. At 1-0 down, we gave away an unbelievably bad goal. It was a shocking mistake. Liverpool have had two remarkable results before this game, beating Real Madrid and Manchester United - and they certainly did not need any help from us to achieve what they wanted.
"We played poorly. We gave away some lousy goals and we have to get back on track. We were doing fine four or five weeks ago, but we were well beaten by a better side. But we are a better side than we showed in this game.''
Benitez also paid tribute to Liverpool secretary Bryce Morrison, who died yesterday morning. "Bryce is a big loss to this club, and this has been a big week for us. But this is a very sad day,'' he said.
Sunday March 14, 2009
At last ... Theater of Nightmares for the Red Devils
|Manchester United||1 - 4||Liverpool|
|23'||Cristiano Ronaldo (pen)||1 - 0|
|28'||1 - 1||Fernando Torres|
|44'||1 - 2||Steven Gerrard (pen)|
|77'||1 - 3||Fabio Aurelio|
|90'||1 - 4||Andrea Dossena|
Rafael Benitez might end up having the last laugh after all as his Liverpool side hauled themselves back into the title fight with a decisive 4-1 hammering of 10-man Manchester United at Old Trafford.
The Merseyside giants battled back from a goal down to defeat the Premier League leaders in clinical fashion, Fernando Torres and Steven Gerrard turning the match on its head before the break, with Fabio Aurelio and Andrea Dossena easing Liverpool well clear before the end.
In contrast, it was an day to forget for Nemanja Vidic, who gifted Torres the equaliser before being sent off against Liverpool for second time this season as Benitez's side reduced United's lead at the top to four points, albeit having played a game more.
It represented Liverpool's biggest win at United since 1936 and could yet trigger an amazing championship revival.
Liverpool were the ones who needed the win and there appeared an extra sharpness about them from the start, especially Torres who gave the Red Devils defence a torrid time.
Once Jamie Carragher had recovered his composure after being unsettled by a late switch to right-back because of Alvaro Arbeloa's late withdrawal, they had the edge in vital areas, the hosts no better than their nervy first-half display against Inter Milan in midweek.
Indeed, it was a surprise when United went ahead.
Pepe Reina read Carlos Tevez's through ball for Park Ji-sung well enough but came out too quickly for his own good. When the South Korean nicked the ball away, the Liverpool keeper could not stop.
And though Reina pleaded for leniency, referee Alan Wiley correctly pointed to the spot.
Ronaldo is not the type of player to waste such opportunities and duly dispatched his 17th goal of the season.
Had Sir Alex Ferguson's men been able to hold their advantage for a decent length of time, the visitors might have panicked. But five minutes later Liverpool were level thanks to a rare mistake from Nemanja Vidic.
The Serbian has been virtually foot perfect this season, so much so that he is favourite to win the PFA player of the year award.
But first Vidic let Martin Skrtel's long punt forward bounce when he could have headed it back into the Liverpool half quite easily. Then, he failed to deal with the loose ball, allowing Torres to nip in and streak clear, beating Edwin van der Sar with clinical efficiency.
Conceding one goal was amazing enough for the Red Devils, yet before half-time Liverpool had scored again.
Hull were the last team to score more than once against United in Premier League combat - and that was four-and-a-half months ago.
But when Torres tried to send Gerrard racing into the box and Patrice Evra mis-timed his tackle, the Liverpool skipper found he converted his penalty with the same confidence Ronaldo had shown earlier.
Gerrard's glee was obvious. And Liverpool's lead was fully deserved, condemning Ferguson to his first interval rallying call in league combat at Old Trafford all season.
The Scot injected a greater sense of urgency into his team, even if there was no improvement in their retention of the ball.
Carrick in particular was having a pretty bad day, twice putting his side in danger with wayward passes.
United at least managed to generate some momentum, with Tevez almost getting on the end of a Wayne Rooney knock-back and then rolling a shot on the turn just wide.
Having expressed his `hatred' of Liverpool earlier in the week, the last thing Rooney wanted was to suffer an immediate defeat and a chance for Gerrard - a long-time friend - to gloat.
Yet as time ticked by, that was the fate Rooney was condemned to, especially as Ferguson waited until less than 20 minutes remained before he made the introductions of Dimitar Berbatov, Paul Scholes and Ryan Giggs.
It is the kind of strength Benitez does not have and one of the major reasons why Liverpool have found themselves on the wrong end of a 14-point swing in fortunes since United returned from their Club World Cup campaign in Japan just before Christmas.
What Liverpool have managed to do this season is beat Chelsea and United, against both of whom they have now registered 'doubles'.
Any hope United had, evaporated within a minute of Ferguson's spectacular triple substitution as another woeful first touch, again from Vidic, left the Serbian little alternative other than to haul down Gerrard.
For the second successive game against Liverpool, it brought Vidic a red card and he was still making his way down the tunnel when Aurelio curled home a superb free-kick.
And Liverpool were not finished as Andrea Dossena lobbed Van der Sar to complete a memorable win, whose significance remains unknown.
As a reds fans ... this result is simply amazing
He may be a faceless bureaucrat or an unknown statistician, but the compiler of UEFA's European club rankings can congratulate himself on his formula. Liverpool, as Rafa Benitez had noted with satisfaction, are placed above all others. He demanded respect, and he should now receive copious quantities. Liverpool produced a performance worthy of the best, humbling Benitez's beloved Real Madrid.
Gerrard celebrates his goal against Madrid
Had UEFA's rankings been assessed over 55 years rather than five, first position would have belonged to Real Madrid. This, though, was a salutary warning to arguably the world's biggest club. The gulf was vast, wider than the smiles at Anfield and more pronounced than even the scoreline indicated.
The consequence was that this lacked the tension of some European nights, though Liverpool compensated with their considerable quality. This was a joyous occasion, a cacophonous celebration of brilliance.
At a club where authenticity matters, they were the real deal. Real appeared imposters on the European stage, donning the kit of the club with the greatest tradition in the competition but incapable of competing with their quicker, sharper opponents. It was perhaps the outstanding display of Benitez's five-year reign. It was perhaps the nadir for Real in their five successive exits at this stage. But for the magnificent Iker Casillas, the nine-time winners could have been beaten 9-0.
They were abject, stylishly scythed apart by the sensational Steven Gerrard and the formidable Fernando Torres. Apologies should be proffered. Liverpool's victory in Madrid preceded an outbreak of footballing snobbery in Spain. Real, the implication was, wouldn't win in such a manner. The accusations were directed at a man schooled at the Bernabeu. The rebuttal was swift and emphatic. Boring, boring Benitez? Not a bit of it. The safety-first strategist sent out a team of entertainers, the flicks and tricks belonged to the men in red, the one-touch football rendering it an exhibition performed at blistering speed. Liverpool may have been misers in Madrid; they were adventurers at Anfield.
They could have scored twice within the first four minutes. Real surrendered the moral high ground within 30. They abandoned any pretence they could overturn the one-goal deficit. There was no white storm, no white lightning and precious little white spirit.
"To win any game is important, so it doesn't matter the name of the other team," insisted the happiest Real fan at Anfield, Benitez. "We are top of these rankings because in the last five years we have been very good." The message to his compatriots who had branded him defensive was simple: "Look at the facts, look at the figures. Liverpool scored 119 goals in all competitions last season and that proves something." With typical obstinacy, he ignored invitations to single anyone out, but added: "We played really well from the beginning to the end. We showed today we can play in different ways. We knew that they were expecting us to stay deep and play on the counter-attack."
His outwitted and eliminated counterpart, Juande Ramos, said: "We're very disappointed indeed. We're sad because we are out of the competition. Liverpool were just too good on the night. They were better side and they deserved to go through." Nevertheless, he added: "We conceded two early goals, both of which had their doubts." However, the elements of controversy should not conceal Liverpool's dominance. A sense of injustice should not obscure Real's failings.
Their validity was questioned, but the lead was deserved. When Torres diverted the ball to Dirk Kuyt for the opener, Real claimed a foul on Cannavaro. Yet their statuesque response meant that, when the Dutchman centred, both Gerrard and Torres languished unmarked, the Spaniard tapping in. Accustomed to life at a club who operate in Real's considerable shadow, the former Atletico captain duly rejoiced in front of the visiting Castilians.
Ilker Casillas keeps out another shot
Then Gabriel Heinze was adjudged to have handled, when he had actually shouldered, the ball inside the box. Gerrard's 100th European game was already cause for celebration, but his coolly dispatched penalty brought more.
His second of the night made Gerrard the leading scorer in this season's Champions League. After the rampaging Ryan Babel cut the ball back from the left flank, the captain arrived at pace to lift his shot into the roof of the net. It appeared the product of unstoppable momentum, a characteristic of Gerrard at his best. After his departure, the rout was completed by Andrea Dossena, sliding a shot beyond Casillas from Javier Mascherano's low cross.
Casillas deserved better after producing a series of outstanding saves to thwart Torres and Gerrard twice, plus the marauding Mascherano. It meant that the perfectionist at the helm at Anfield was not completely satisfied. "Close," said Benitez. "But we could have scored more goals."
Four was enough to make it Real's heaviest Champions League defeat. Alfredo di Stefano, Ferenc Puskas, Julio Iglesias, Sergio Garcia: your boys took one hell of a beating. And it was orchestrated by one of your own.
• MAN OF THE MATCH: Steven Gerrard - There are matches when Gerrard is astonishingly good, and this was one. But for Casillas and his removal when the game was becoming more open, he would have become a rare player to score a hat-trick against Real.
• LIVERPOOL VERDICT: They were absolutely superb. If Gerrard and Torres were the star turns, the tireless Mascherano, the industrious Kuyt, the mercurial Babel and the defiant Jamie Carragher all played their part. Yet the sense of achievement is heightened by a glance at Liverpool's slender squad. The valiant Sami Hyypia aside, the bench comprised of Diego Cavalieri, Dossena, Lucas Leiva, David Ngog, Jay Spearing and Martin Kelly.
• REAL MADRID VERDICT: Apart from Casillas, only the indefatigable Lassana Diarra should escape censure. They were overwhelmed and overpowered. Whether it is the past fixation with galaticos, the revolving door to the manager's office or the penchant for knee-jerk reactions, something is seriously awry for Real, despite their lavish expenditure, to prove this poor.
• JAY'S DAY: With 17 minutes remaining, Benitez brought on Jay Spearing for just his second Liverpool appearance. With the Kop chorusing his name and the local lad tearing around, harassing a demoralised Real side, it scarcely appeared credible.
Ahad, Mac 22, 2009
Pada 21 Mac, saya dan rakan-rakan dari Bandar Tasik Puteri telah menghadiri kursus Workshop Team Building & Gerak Saraf Anjuran KEADILAN Bahagian Putrajaya ... terima kasih diucapkan kepada penceramah yang diketuai oleh Dato' Wan Ismail.
Tahniah kepada penganjur terutama Ketua Bahagian, Sdr. Onn Abu Bakar, S/U Sdr. Baharom, Sdr. Othman, Dzulkarnain Thaib (DT) serta JK Penganjur. Terima Kasih kerana sudi menjemput saya.
Program ini sangat berguna terutama dalam usaha memantapkan lagi kaedah perang saraf dalam berpolitik dan dalam memperkemaskan lagi organisasi akar umbi.
Untuk maklumat lanjut disertakan berita kursus tersebut menerusi blog Bahagian Putrajaya yang boleh diakses menerusi http:// pkrputrajaya.blogspot.com.
TAHNIAH PADA SEMUA PESERTA....!!!!
Jumaat, Mac 06, 2009
"Sesungguhnya pada diri Rasulullah s.a.w. itu adalah ikutan yang teramat baik"
- mempunyai percakapan yang bagus, jelas dan terang.
- senang difahami, mempunyai hikmat & menarik.
- minat & gemar berpakaina putih & bersih, terutama hari Jumaat & majlis keramaian.
- memakai kain sarung atau kain selendang atau baju kemeja atau jubah.
- memulai pertemuan dengan lafaz salam.
- bersifat lemah-lembut, bernudi bahasa, bijak dalam menangani masalah, ikhlas simpati * bertimbangrasa serta menghormati & kasih sayang.
- suka pakai cincin, tidak lebih dari 2 bentuk.
- cincin diperbuat dari pada perak dan permata dari akik.
- makruh memakai cincin di jari telunjuk, jari tengah dan ibu jari.
- makruh bagi wanita memakai cincin perak.
- gemar minuman yang manis dan sejuk (bukan ais) kerana minuman manis itu lazat & sejuk itu boleh hilangkan dahaga.
- tidak memilih asalkan halal.
- minat Dlafaf iaitu makanan asasi di negeri baginda.
- tidak makan makanan yang masih panas kerana ia kurang berkat.
- suka makan roti & buah-buahan & yang paling diminati ialah semangka& anggur.
- makanan yang paling digemari adalah daging kerana ia menambah pendengaran & juga penghulu makanan di dunia & akhirat.
- apabila berbaring di tempat tidur, baginda meletakkan tangan di bawah pipinya & berdoa.